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House Keeping and Domestic Facilities

701. In a place where most floors are paved or otherwise covered (like in today's modern homes), one may use a soft broom to sweep a room on Shabbos, that is covered with flooring. One may not use a hard broom made of twigs or reeds, and such a broom is muktza. Preferably, one should only sweep on Shabbos in a place that was already swept before Shabbos.

702. It is forbidden on Shabbos to reattach a broomstick which has separated from its brush, even with the aid of a screw which is designed for that purpose. One may also not strengthen the connection with the assistance of a nail.

703. It is forbidden on Shabbos to sweep a floor which is not paved or covered. In a place where most floors are not paved or covered in some other way, it is forbidden to sweep even a covered floor. By way of example, in a camp consisting mainly of tents or huts with uncovered, earthen floors, it is forbidden to sweep even in the few huts which do have wooden or concrete flooring.

704. One should not brush a carpet on Shabbos vigorously, nor clean it with a specially designed carpet-sweeper (even if not electrically operated). It is also prohibited to shake the dust out of a carpet vigorously. One may lightly shake out a carpet that is not new and is of light colors. One may gently sweep even a dark-colored and new carpet with a soft broom in order to collect rubbish lying on its surface.

705. Washing a floor on Shabbos is forbidden, even if it is a tiled floor and even if one uses a non-absorbent, rubber bladed wiper. However, it is permitted to spray water on the floor of a room with the intention of preventing the dust from rising (for instance during the dancing on Simchas Torah) even if it consists of bare earth (and surely if it is tiled).

706. Where it is essential to wash the floor on Shabbos, it is possible to relax the strictness of the prohibition and permit the washing of tiled and other covered floors, provided that only a squeegee, and not a cloth, is used. An example is the case of a hospital, where particular attention must be paid to cleanliness, or in a place where people could slip and get hurt from the filth on the floor - such as during - or after - Simchas Torah dancing in Shul.

707. Small quantities of water, wine or other liquid that spilled on the table or floor on Shabbos, may be wiped up with a cloth intended for the purpose, as long as one is careful not to squeeze the cloth. Large quantities of liquid may not be wiped up with a cloth, because one is more likely to squeeze it out, but one may wipe them away with the aid of a squeegee.

708. It is forbidden to remove the cover of a drain in the floor on Shabbos, in order to allow the liquid to flow away, unless the cover has a handle.

One may use a dry cloth to dust furniture or other articles, however one may not polish them either with cream or liquid, nor even shine them by vigorous rubbing.

709. Cobwebs on furniture or some other movable article may be removed, provided that this is done not with one's hand but with a broom or some other instrument. One should not remove cobwebs from the walls, ceiling or any other part of the house.

710. A domestic rubber plunger (but not the larger variety used by professional plumbers) may be employed on Shabbos to unblock a clogged sink or toilet bowl, if there is an important need for it.

It is permitted to use an air-purifying spray on Shabbos.

711. Disinfectant or deodorant which colors the water of the toilet bowl should not be used on Shabbos, and indeed should be removed from the toilet before Shabbos or Yom-Tov begins. Disinfectant or deodorant which does not color the water may be used on Shabbos, in both liquid and solid forms.

712. On is allowed to hang up containers of a chemical material designed to act as an air-freshener on Shabbos (although it is best to open them before Shabbos).

One may clean off dirt adhering to the toilet bowl on Shabbos, using for the purpose a brush with synthetic bristles which are not close enough together to hold water.

713. On Shabbos, it is forbidden to turn on the taps of central-heating radiators or of the pipes which conduct hot water from the boiler to the radiators. This is because the cold water in the pipes and in the radiators would, as a result, flow into the boiler, where it would be heated. The taps must not be turned on even if the heating system is not yet operating but will be turned on during Shabbos by means of a timer, or by a non-Jew.

714. One both Shabbos and Yom-Tov, one is allowed to turn off the taps of central-heating radiators and of the pipes which conduct hot water from the boiler to the radiators. However, on Shabbos it is proper to refrain from doing so as long as the water inside the radiator or pipes is in the process of being heated and hasn't yet reached the temperature of Yad Soledes (see halacha 231). This is because turning off the taps causes the water in the boiler to reach Yad Soledes more quickly than it otherwise would.

715. There is nothing wrong with opening and closing the doors or windows of a centrally heated apartment or house on Shabbos. That is to say, one need not worry that one will thereby accelerate the ignition or extinction of the thermostatically operated heating system.

716. A timer which is adjusted by means of small non-electrical switches may be adjusted on Shabbos to cause the heating or air-conditioning to turn on or off at a later time than it was set to before Shabbos, but not to cause the heating or air-conditioning to turn on or off at an earlier time than it was set to before Shabbos.

717. Where a Jew has turned on the central heating or air-conditioning of a building, even in direct violation of the Shabbos, one need not leave the building to avoid benefiting from the transgression. However, it is forbidden to lean on or come nearer to the radiators or air-conditioning with the intention of warming or cooling oneself.

718. In countries with a cool climate, one may ask a non-Jew on Shabbos to turn on the heating, if one is troubled by the cold, since a person suffering from the cold is placed in the same category as someone who is ill. The same applies if there are small children in the house, even if the cold is not intense enough to bother the adults, since small children are naturally more sensitive to cold. Once the heating is on, it is permissible for the adults also to avail themselves of its benefit as well.

719. One may not place food on a radiator if it can reach the temperature of Yad Soledes (see halacha 231). This is prohibited even if one intends to leave it there for a short time to remove the chill, and even if the heating system is not yet operating (such as on a timer).

It is forbidden to release air from a radiator on Shabbos (by loosening the screw designed for that purpose), even after the heating system has turned off.

720. One should not hold one's wet hands near a warm radiator on Shabbos, even if its temperature is less than 45 degrees centigrade (Yad Soledes). There is, however, nothing wrong with warming them at the radiator after they have been dried.

721. One is not permitted to spread or hang wet laundry on or near a radiator, even if its temperature has not reached, and will not reach, 45 degrees centigrade (Yad Soledes).

While wearing wet clothes, one may not stand or sit near a radiator in a position where the temperature reaches Yad Soledes, even if one's sole intention is to warm oneself and not one's clothes.

722. A pot containing warm food that is covered on all sides with a cloth may not be placed on top of a radiator, even before Shabbos (a prohibiition called Hatmana). If however, the pot is not covered on all sides, one may put it near or on top of a radiator, even on Shabbos, so long as it is not in a position where its temperature will reach 45 degrees centigrade (Yad Soledes). 

Repairs, Bells and Misc

723. It is forbidden on Shabbos to take the door off of a house or a large cupboard, or to take off a window. A door or window which has come off may not be reinstalled and is Muktza.

724. Fragments of a broken windowpane may be removed from the floor on Shabbos, to prevent someone being injured by them, but one should take them away with the assistance of a broom or some similar object, and not move them with one's hands, as they are muktza.

725. Pieces of broken glass which remain in a window frame should not be taken out on Shabbos or Yom-Tov, since this would be an infringement of the prohibitions that fall under the general category of "Building". Where there is a danger that someone might cut himself, one may ask a non-Jew to remove the glass in the frame. If there is no non-Jew available, one may remove it oneself, using a method which one would not normally employ, for example by kicking it out.

726. One is not allowed to repair a smashed window on Shabbos. It is also prohibited to fill the gap with a piece of plywood in order to keep the wind out or to stop people from looking in. One is however permitted to cover the hole with a cloth or a piece of cardboard so long as one does not attach it with nails or thumbtacks nor stick it down and one intends that it should be there only temporarily.

727. On Shabbos, one must not write letters or draw patterns in the condensation which has formed on a window pane. One may however, wipe the condensation off a windowpane, provided this does not involve wiping off previous writing or patterns.

728. One is not allowed to drive in or extract a nail or a thumbtack on Shabbos. One may likewise not attach or detach a hook which is fixed to the wall by means of suction or an adhesive backing. One may hang a picture on a hook which has been fixed in the wall since before Shabbos.

729. One should not use a doorbell on Shabbos. There is a rabbinical prohibition extending even to the use of an ordinary bell which is not electrically operated. If there is no other way for one to enter the house and one really needs to enter, one may rely on the authorities who relax the severity of the rule in such circumstances and may ring a non-electrically operated bell. Where at all possible though in such a case, one should do it in a different manner, such as by using one's elbow.

730. One may not, on Shabbos or Yom-Tov, knock on a door with a knocker that is used on the other days of the week. One may however knock with one's hand. One may also use a knocker that is specially intended for use only on Shabbos or Yom-Tov.

731. A bell which rings with the opening of a door should be removed from it before Shabbos or Yom-Tov starts. If one has forgotten to remove it, one may, nonetheless, open the door on Shabbos or Yom-Tov, as long as the bell is not electrically operated.

732. One may use automatic escalators and moving sidewalks on Shabbos that operate continuously or at fixed intervals. One may not use them if they are put into motion by one's approach.

733. It is prohibited on Shabbos to pass through an electrically operated automatic door which is opened by means of a photo-electric cell or when one treads on the floor in front of it. In both these cases, one would be activating an electrical current.

734. There are two types of non-electric combination locks. One type is opened by rolling digits around to form the predetermined number. Another type is opened by turning a dial to specific numbers. Both types are permitted to be used on Shabbos.

Erecting Shelters and Partitions

735. It is, in general, forbidden on Shabbos to spread any kind of canopy, whether hard or soft, as protection against the sun, the rain, mosquitoes, flies and so forth. It is likewise forbidden to make a tent out of blankets and the like, with the object of using the space underneath, even indoors. It goes without saying that it is forbidden on Shabbos to erect an actual tent, even if one intends to dismantle it the same day.

736. One may add a temporary extension on Shabbos to an already existing protective shelter. Thus, where a canopy has been open since before Shabbos to the width of at least one tefach (handbreadth), it is permitted to add to it by opening it to its full extent. If the canopy can be opened from both sides, it should be extended only from the side which was open a bit already from before Shabbos.

737. One is not allowed to place a net, hood or a canopy on Shabbos over a baby carriage, bed or crib as a protection against the sun or against flies unless the net, hood or canopy was open already to the width of a tefach (one handbreadth) before Shabbos. When removing the net or canopy in such circumstances, one should leave in position the tefach covering which was spread before Shabbos. If the hood or canopy was already attached to the carriage or bed before Shabbos, it is permitted to spread it on Shabbos.

738. One is permitted on Shabbos to add a temporary covering to an existing covering, even if the additional cover is intended to protect from something against which the original cover is of no avail. One is, therefore, allowed to put a waterproof cover over a Sukkah when it is raining (to prevent the decorations from becoming spoiled). Nevertheless, one should take care, in doing so, not to move the Sh'cach, as it is Muktza.

739. One may open the hood of a baby carriage on Shabbos, provided it has been attached since before Shabbos. Once the hood is opened to the extent of a tefach (a handbreadth), one may also spread a net or canopy over the whole baby carriage, although one should begin to spread it from the end where the hood is. 

740. The hood of a baby carriage that was attached on Shabbos, even in a permitted manner, such as by slots or press studs, should not be opened on that day.

The roof of a Sukkah which is attached to its sides by hinges may be opened and closed on Shabbos.

741. The Halachic authorities saw fit to extend the prohibition of erecting shelters on Shabbos to the opening of umbrellas as well. One should not open them, nor fold them up. One should not use them even if they were open before Shabbos, and even in a place with an Eiruv.

742. Even though opening and closing an umbrella is forbidden on Shabbos, one may open and close a garden sunshade which was fixed in the ground before Shabbos. One may also open and close an awning over a balcony, porch or a shop window.

743. As we have learned, it is forbidden to erect a tent on Shabbos. However, if the tent has been standing from before Shabbos, one may let down its walls and secure them at the bottom (in a permitted manner, such as a loop over a hook) to prevent them from flapping in the wind. However, this may only be done if it is usual for the walls in question to be unfastened and raised at frequent intervals (and not only once every few days).

744. On Shabbos one may open and close a folding chair, a folding bed, a folding table and a folding playpen. This is because each of these items is opened and closed as a matter of course and because its parts are all connected as one unit.

One may not attach a sunshade to a deck chair. One may open and close a sunshade which was attached to the deck chair before Shabbos.

745. On Shabbos, one may extend and decrease the size of a table by raising or lowering flaps or by inserting or extracting an additional leaf, even by means of pins which insert into corresponding holes in the table. By contrast, one may not assemble or dismantle a child's crib or cot made up of separate sections or a camp bed which is held together by pegs or pins which have to be driven into position. (The difference is that in this case, the construction is more rigid and permanent than in the case of the table.)

746. A drawer one handbreadth or more deep, fitted under a table, should not be pulled completely out of the table on Shabbos and, if it is completely out, should not be replaced.

747. The Torah prohibits the erection of a permanent partition on Shabbos. Even fixing both the top and bottom of a curtain on to the frame of a portable screen is forbidden, if it is done to last for a few days or longer. (The size of the partition is not important).

748. One is allowed on Shabbos to fix a curtain at both its top and bottom ends to a frame, for example, where it is intended to temporarily fill the place of a door which has come off its hinges, provided that the curtain will indeed remain in the frame only for a short time and that it is not attached with nails or tacks. One is also allowed to cover a shattered windowpane with a cloth (without tacks or nails), since it is not usual to leave a window covered in such a makeshift manner for any length of time.

Dangerous Nuisances and Health Hazards

749. One may, even on Shabbos, kill an animal or insect which is a danger to human life. This could include a mad dog, a snake which may be venomous, a scorpion (including the less dangerous black scorpion), even a wasp - when in the vicinity of a child, and specific types of insects where there is a risk that they may be a carrier of a dangerous disease. One may kill an animal or insect of this kind even if it is still far away from any human being, even if it is not pursuing anyone and even if it is in the process of escaping.

750. In the case of animals and insects whose bite or sting causes considerable pain but is not fatal, one may put some kind of receptacle over them in order to catch them on Shabbos, even when they are not pursuing anyone (but one is afraid that they may bite or sting someone later).

751. If it is not possible to catch them, one may tread on them in the course of walking, even with the intention of killing them. (However, one must not kill them in such a way that other people will realize that this is one's intention). When they are pursuing someone and it is not possible to catch them, one may kill them even in the normal way.

752. With regard to insects such as gnats or mosquitoes on Shabbos, which are liable to bite or sting but do not cause great pain: While they are on one's body, one may pick them off and throw them aside, if it is impossible to remove them without catching them or picking them up.

753. Insects such as gnats or mosquitoes on Shabbos (which are liable to bite or sting but do not cause great pain), may be driven away but should not be caught on Shabbos. If they cannot be driven away and they are on the inner surface of one's clothes, one may pick them off (according to one less stringent Halachic view), however in no case may one kill them, even while they are biting. One may likewise not throw them into water, because this will certainly kill them.

754. On Shabbos, one is not permitted to kill, catch or intentionally tread on (even in the course of walking) ants, flies and other insects which do not bite or sting human beings. One may also not swill water over them in such a way that they will be killed, nor spray or lay down poison to kill them. One may sprinkle or spray a designated substance that has a smell which will drive them away. One may also put down poison before the commencement of Shabbos.

755. One is allowed to spray insecticide in the room of a person who is sick or in a room with a child, in order to drive insects out, but one should make sure to leave a door or window open, so that the insects can escape and not to spray the insects themselves, since to kill them is forbidden, (besides in the cases mentioned in Halacha 749 and 751 above).

756. It is forbidden on Shabbos to set a trap to catch mice, rats or similar pests or to put down poison in order to kill them. One may set a trap or put down poison before the beginning of Shabbos.

If one finds a dead mouse in a place that disturbs him, he may remove it and throw it out despite the fact that it is Muktza.

757. One is permitted to remove glass splinters, a needle, a nail or any other muktza object from a place where people are liable to be injured by them. One may likewise scatter even muktza cinders or sand over oil or ice in the street, to prevent passers-by from slipping. (This is permitted even in a Carmilis, which most streets are, but not in a Reshus Harabim De'Oraysah)

Plants & Trees

758. It is forbidden to tend a plant or a tree on Shabbos or Yom-Tov in any way whatsoever. The prohibition applies as well to hydroponically grown plants or plants in a pot, even if the pot is not perforated at its base and is indoors.

759. A flowerpot is muktza, whether or not it is perforated at the base, and should not be moved on Shabbos.

One must not throw seeds or fruit pips onto moist earth on Shabbos. One must not throw them even onto dry earth, if it will be made wet by rain or other water (whether on Shabbos or afterwards).

760. One may not put the pit of an avocado, or of another fruit, into a container of water on Shabbos, so that it should strike root and begin to sprout. It is also forbidden to take a pit of this kind out of a cup of water into which it has been put. The pit, the cup and the water in the cup are muktzah.

761. One is not allowed to water any plant on Shabbos, nor to pour water onto sown ground or onto ground which is going to be ploughed or sown, even if nothing is growing there at present. Consequently, it is better not to eat in one's garden on Shabbos when this entails drinking or using water or some other liquid which, were it to be spilled, would have an effect on the cultivation of the garden.

762. One who eats in his garden on Shabbos or Yom-Tov - a case in point is a person whose Sukkah is in the garden - should be careful to wash his hands in a receptacle of some kind. Also, dishes should not be washed in the garden, except inside a bowl. Drink remaining in the bottom of a cup should not be poured away onto the ground and rainwater which has collected in a receptacle left in the garden should not be poured onto the ground.

763. If the outlet pipe of a sink or basin carries water away until it is discharged over sown ground, one may, nonetheless, wash one's hands in it or pour water into it on Shabbos. One need not worry about the watering of the seeds, providing this consequence is unintended. Likewise, one may urinate on growing grass or other vegetation, but one should take care not to spit on growing vegetation.

764. Sprinklers may be turned on before the start of Shabbos, and left on over Shabbos, in order to irrigate a field or garden. Sprinklers may be turned off even on Shabbos.

765. One must not place a covering over plants on Shabbos in a nursery, or remove such a covering, since this is done to help plants grow. One may, however, open or close a door in order to enter or leave a hothouse or greenhouse.

766. It is forbidden to pick fruit from a tree which is attached to the ground on Shabbos, even if both the tree and its fruit have completely dried up. One is not allowed to detach something that is growing, even if it has no roots, like mushrooms or moss. If a branch was detached from its connection with the ground before Shabbos, one may pick the fruit.

767. One may touch a tree on Shabbos, but one may not move any part of it, since it is muktza. One is not allowed to lean against a tree, unless one does so only lightly (since using a tree is prohibited) and the tree must be so firm that one cannot move it. An infirm person should not lean against a tree at all, since in spite of himself, he will lean against it with all his weight.

768. One must not climb a tree on Shabbos even if it is so firm that it does not move when one climbs on it (because using a tree is forbidden). If one did not know that what one was doing is forbidden, one is permitted, indeed one is obliged to come down immediately. If one knew when climbing that it was forbidden, one may not come down until after Shabbos.

769. One may not use a tree on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. Therefore, one may not place anything on a tree or remove anything from it, whether with one's hand or with the aid of a stick. One may not tie a rope to a tree or hang a basket from its branches.

770. The Rabbis forbade one to put an object which is not muktza onto a tree before Shabbos if it is liable to be used on Shabbos. This is because one might come to "use" the tree by taking the object off of it on Shabbos. An object which was on a tree at the start of Shabbos and then fell off or was removed by a non-Jew, is muktza on Shabbos.

771. On Shabbos, one may not put anything into, or take anything out of, a basket hanging on the trunk of a tree or on one of its branches. One must not put anything into, or take anything out of, the pockets of a coat hanging on a tree. One must not use a swing which is attached, even if on only one side, to a tree.

772. On Shabbos, one must not hang a swing from a pole which is fixed between two trees or which is fixed at one end to a tree and at the other end to a wall. One must not climb a ladder which is leaning against a tree, even if it has been in that position since before Shabbos.

773. One may put things into, or take things out, of a coat or a basket which is hanging on a nail driven into a tree, if the coat or basket is hanging there from before Shabbos and if the tree will not sway as a result of this. This is permitted because one is not directly using the tree. One may not however, hang the coat or basket on the nail in the tree on Shabbos.

774. One may use a swing on Shabbos, which has been hanging from a pole attached to a tree since before Shabbos. One may dry one's hands on a towel that was hanging on a line strung between two trees since before Shabbos. However, one must not remove the towel from the line.

775. One is allowed to walk on a lawn on Shabbos, regardless of the possibility that one may thereby pull up or tear off clumps of grass. If the grass is long, one should walk slowly and should certainly not run, as one would be bound to tear off some grass in this way.

776. On Shabbos, one should not tread on dry thistles which are still attached to the ground, because they will definitely break off. Any pieces of grass or vegetation that one finds stuck to one's shoes should not be removed in the normal way with one's hand, since they are muktza.

777. On Shabbos, it is permitted to sit or lie on grass. One is similarly allowed to spread a blanket or mat on a lawn and sit on that. One may even move grass which is connected to the ground to and fro, provided one takes care not to detach it.

778. One is permitted to smell flowers on Shabbos, even when they are still connected to the ground. One may even move them as long as they have flexile stalks which do not become stiff (even later) and one is careful not to detach them from the ground. On the other hand, one may not smell a fruit that is still on the tree, for fear that one may pick it to eat.

779. Leaves, branches and even fruits are muktza on Shabbos if they fell off the tree on Shabbos, or if there is a doubt as to whether they fell off the tree on Shabbos or before. They are also muktza if a non-Jew picked them on Shabbos, even for his own use, or if one is not sure whether he picked them that day or previously.

780. On Shabbos, one may not gather fruits, leaves or branches which have fallen from a tree, even if they fell before Shabbos. If fruit has dropped before Shabbos in a place other than that in which it grew, for instance, into a courtyard, then, if it is scattered, one may pick up a little at a time, for immediate consumption, but not all together at once. If however, the fruit all fell in one place, one may collect them all at the same time. If the fruit became mixed with sand or fallen leaves, one should pick up only one fruit at a time and eat it right away.

781. Even though using a tree is prohibited on Shabbos, one may sit on a tree stump if it is less than three tefachim (handbreadths) from the ground.

Vases are not muktza on Shabbos and may be moved, even if they contain flowers or twigs and water.

782. Flowers or twigs may not be put into a vase of water on Shabbos, even if they are not muktza (such as if they were put aside before Shabbos for decorating the house) and even if the water has been in the vase since before Shabbos.

783. On Shabbos, one may not add to the water which has been in a vase full of flowers since before Shabbos. On Yom-Tov, water may be added. On both Shabbos and Yom-Tov, one is permitted to take flowers or twigs out of the water, as long as they have not put out roots into the water. The twigs may afterwards be replaced (in the same water), but not the flowers.

784.lulav is considered like twigs that we learned about in the previous Halacha. Therefore, on Yom-Tov, one may put a lulav back into the water from which it was taken and one may add water to that which is already in the receptacle containing the lulav, but one may not change the water.

785. One is allowed to wrap a wet towel around a lulav on Yom-Tov, provided that the towel was made wet before Yom-Tov and one would normally not bother to wring out this towel if it became wet. One may not wet the towel on Yom-Tov. On Shabbos a lulav is muktza.

786. It is forbidden on Shabbos to walk in one's garden with the object of checking the state of the plants so as to determine what work has to be done there on the following day.

Laws Relating to Animals on Shabbos

787. An animal owned by a Jew is not allowed to be worked on Shabbos to do one of the 39 categories of activities forbidden to a Jew on Shabbos. For example, one should not let one's animal go out in a Reshus Harabim with a burden on its back. However, there is nothing wrong with the animal performing forbidden activity for its own benefit. One is, thus, allowed to put an animal out to pasture on Shabbos, even though it will be pulling up and eating grass from the ground. However, one should not do this with the intention of improving the land.

788. We learned that one should not let one's animal go out in a reshus Harabim with a burden on its back. However, an item is considered as protecting the well being of the animal, like clothes for a human (and consequently permitted), if it:
- directly protects the animal against the cold,
- protects it from any other form of suffering,
- guards against its running away and becoming lost,
- or even keeps its wool clean.

789. An animal which needs to be kept on a leash to prevent it from running away may be taken out on a leash in
reshus harabim (a public area without an Eruv) on Shabbos, but
a. the person holding it should take care that the leash does not hang down to within a
tefach (handbreadth) of the ground,
b. the free end of the leash must not protrude a
tefach or more from his hand, and
c. he should beware not to lean against the animal when attaching the leash on
Shabbos.

790. An identification tag suspended from the neck of an animal is not regarded as an item which protects the physical well-being of the animal, since it doesn't actually protect the animal in and of itself. One may not, therefore, allow an animal to go out into a reshuth ha-rabbim (in a place without an Eruv) wearing such a tag. This is even the case where the law requires the animal to have an identification tag or disk. A tag that is stapled to an animals ear is permitted, since it cannot be removed.

791. On Shabbos, one must not let one's animal go out into a place without an Eruv, wearing even an item which is designed to protect its physical well being, if that item is liable to fall off. The reason is that, if the item does drop off, one might come to pick it up and carry it. 

792. On is not allowed to use an animal on Shabbos. Consequently, one must not
1) ride on an animal,
2) hang on the side of an animal,
3) climb onto an animal, even without any intention of riding it,
4) place on an animal an item of which it has no need,
5) sit in a cart harnessed to an animal.

793. One may remove from an animal, on Shabbos, an item which one needs, provided one does not move the animal in doing so. One may remove from an animal an item which is causing it pain, even if one moves the animal in doing so.

794. One may place on an animal on Shabbos something that the animal needs, as in the case of a rope to make sure it doesn't run away, a saddle cushion put on a donkey to keep it warm or a nose-bag worn by small calves who find it difficult to eat off the ground. One should take care though, not to lean on the animal when putting the item on.

795. One may on Shabbos put food in front of animals or birds which are dependant on one for their food. Not only their owner, upon who they are dependant, but any person may feed them.

796. One is not allowed to feed animals or birds on Shabbos which are not dependant on man for their food, even if one's intention is simply to confer a benefit on the Almighty's creatures. In view of this, the custom of scattering grains or leftovers to the birds on Shabbos Shira is to be disapproved. Nonetheless, one may shake crumbs out of a tablecloth (in a place with an Eruv), even though the birds will eat them.

797. Dogs are in a special category, and one may put food in front of them on Shabbos, even if they are not dependant on man for their food. Likewise, one is allowed to put food in front of any animal which is hungry and cannot find anything to eat.

798. Even though certain Shabbos prohibitions are permitted on Yom-Tov when preparing food, this is only if the food is for oneself or another Jew. However, one is not allowed to perform an activity which is forbidden on Shabbos when preparing food for an animal. Even transferring food from place to place without an Eruv is forbidden on Yom-Tov for an animal.

799. On Shabbos, one may put food into the mouths of animals which have difficulty in taking food by themselves, but one must be careful not to move the animal while feeding it, since animals are mukzta.

800. It is forbidden to change the water in an aquarium containing fish on Shabbos. If, however, it is necessary to add water every day, one may do so, even if the aquarium also contains aquatic plants. The reason is because the fish are dependant on man for their food, and adding water is in the same category of feeding them, since without additional water, they are liable to die.