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601. The general prohibition against writing on Chol Hamoed of Yom-Tov does not apply to nonpermanent writing, such as writing with chalk on a blackboard, or with, or in, sand or dust. However, on Yom-Tov itself as on Shabbos, this is forbidden. It is also forbidden on Shabbos or Yom-Tov to write letters or make patterns on a misted or frosted windowpane, or to wipe them off.

602. All games involving cutting or sticking, whether with glue or adhesive tape, are prohibited on Shabbos.

One need not stop children from blowing soap bubbles on Shabbos, although adults should not do this.

603. Games in which points are awarded to the participants, such as quizzes and "pick-up-sticks", and in which it is usual to note down the score, should not be played on Shabbos, so that one should not come to write. (Games played for real money are prohibited even on a weekday).

604. It is best to refrain on Shabbos from playing games in which imitation money is used, such as "Monopoly". The same applies to all games in which one stands to make either a gain or a loss (even if not expressed in money), such as draidel and "odds or evens". Dice games, for example "chutes and ladders", are permitted, so long, of course, as they do not involve any forbidden activity.

605. Games like Chess, dominoes and "Fish" are allowed on Shabbos. However, care should be taken, when play has ended, not to separate the pieces or cards by color or type, as this contravenes the prohibition against selection. Pieces or cards may be separated and sorted with the intention to play with them right away.

606. One is not allowed on Shabbos to swim, whether in the sea or in a pool, nor to play with the sand on the seashore. It is also prohibited to board a floating boat or ship, unless it is secured and remains secured to the bank or quay.

607. Running and jumping games, such as tag, hide-and-seek and skipping rope are permitted for children to play on Shabbos. However, the performance of physical exercises is prohibited. Also, there must be an Eruv where a jump-rope is used.

608. When taking a stroll on Shabbos, one should be aware not to carry anything outside in a place where there is no Eiruv Chatzairoth or beyond the limits within which the Eiruv is effective. In such a case, it is proper before going out to check one's pockets, to make sure that one is not carrying anything.    

609. One should take care when strolling on Shabbos not to go more than two thousands amoth beyond the boundary of the Eruv. If there is no Eruv, one may not walk more than two thousand amoth beyond the last house of the town.

610. It is not permitted on Shabbos to make snowballs or a snowman, but the snow itself is not Muktza, whether it fell before or on Shabbos.

611. It is prohibited to hold raffles or lotteries on Shabbos, as is sometimes done at parties, even if no other prohibition is involved. This is forbidden even if one merely wishes to do so in order to avoid an argument about who is entitled to what.

612. Dancing and clapping on Shabbos should be done only for the joy of a Mitzva. Clapping with a Shinui is permitted even not for a Mitzva (like clapping one hand on the back of the other).

One may look through binoculars on Shabbos. One may also adjust the focus, as this is done in the normal course of use.

Transferring objects from one place to another

613. Chaza"l say that whoever keeps the Shabbos, it is as if he kept all 613 Mitzvos of the Torah. The first Mishna in Tractate Shabbos deals with Hotza Mereshus Le'reshus - the transfer of objects on Shabbos from one place to another. (It is interesting that this is Halacha number 613). 

On Shabbos, we are not allowed to carry outdoors in a place without an Eruv. In the coming Halachos, we will discuss various aspects of this prohibition. 

614. It is permitted to transfer an article of clothing from one place to another on Shabbos, even in a place without an Eruv, in the course of wearing the garment in the usual way. An article of clothing comprises anything a person wears that either protects his body or serves the needs of his body in some other way, and that is the custom of the time to wear in that way, in that particular place.

615. One may go out on Shabbos into a place without an Eruv, with the following items:
- a dental plate or brace
- a coat worn over one's shoulders like a cape (without the arms in the sleeves)
- gloves or a muff on one's hands - (being very careful not to remove them outside)
- earmuffs in very cold weather.

616. A doctor may go out on Shabbos into a place without an Eruv while wearing a white coat over his clothes, even though the sole purpose of the garment is to make him look more dignified. A person may also go out wearing a gartle (special belt worn by some during prayer), even if he is already wearing an ordinary belt.

617. One is allowed to bring a Tallith to the synagogue on Shabbos, in a place without an Eruv, by wearing it, even under one's coat. One may fold the sides of one's Tallith up onto one's shoulders so that it should not hang down too far. However, one should not go out with one's Tallith folded and wound around one's neck.

618. A woman is allowed to go outside in a place without an Eruv while wearing a scarf or wig over her hair, and to keep it on with a pin. Hairpins are also allowed, however, she should not use more pins than are necessary to hold her hair.

619. It is forbidden on Shabbos to go out into a place without an Eruv with a handkerchief or a plastic bag on one's hat to protect it from the rain, since this is not the normal manner of wearing these articles. However, one may wear a specially made, fitted, plastic rain cover over one's hat. Also, a woman may protect her head from the rain by covering it with a rain-hood or head scarf.

620. The Torah prohibits going out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv, with any sort of food in one's mouth. There is a Rabbinical prohibition to carry anything at all in one's mouth.

It is forbidden to go out with a handkerchief laid over one's collar to prevent it from being soiled by perspiration.

621. It is permissible on Shabbos to wear a raincoat over a winter coat in a place without an Eruv, even if the raincoat is only to protect the winter coat, and not his body.

An article should not be worn for protection against the rain in a place without an Eruv, if there is reasonable possibility that one may come to take it off when the rain stops.

622. One may wear items that are purely ornamental or decorative in nature, such as jewelry, in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos. They must not, however, be carried in the hand.

It is permitted for a person who has an artificial limb or false teeth to go out wearing them on Shabbos.

623. A person who is unable to walk at all without the aid of a cane may go out in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos carrying his cane in his hand. However, a person who can walk without a cane but uses a cane to make his step firmer, or a person who is afraid to walk without a cane on a wet or frozen surface, lest he slip and fall, in such cases one is not allowed to carry a cane on Shabbos. A blind man should consult a qualified Rabbinical authority about using a cane.

624. It is forbidden on Shabbos to go outside in a place without an Eruv while wearing reading glasses, since one will certainly come to remove them in the street and carry them for a distance of four cubits or more. This does not apply in the case of glasses containing bifocal lenses and one may, accordingly, go out while wearing them, even in a place without an Eruv.

625. A person who has not yet grown accustomed to wearing contact lenses should not wear them in a place without an Eruv, since he may come to remove them outside and carry them four Amoth or more. A person who is used to wearing them, may wear them in a place without an Eruv.

626. One should not go outside on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv wearing sunglasses, since it is reasonable to assume that he will remove and carry them when he is in the shade. This applies as well to sunglasses that are clipped on to the regular glasses. However, if the sunglasses are attached by means of a hinge, they are permitted, since, if one enters the shade he can simply swing them upwards and therefore won't come to removing them.

627. It is permitted to go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv wearing a dressing over a wound. One may even wrap a handkerchief over a wound as protection and go out like that. 

The dressing may be secured with an item of no intrinsic value, such as a string or rubber. But the dressing (as opposed to the wound) should not be secured with something that does have value in itself and is not thrown away afterwards, such as a handkerchief.

628. One may not go out in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos wearing a dressing over a wound that's only purpose is to keep one's clothing from being soiled with blood, rather than to protect or heal the wound. If the dressing is worn merely to cover a blemish so as to prevent it from being seen, it is permitted only if the dressing is firmly attached (and not loose).

629. One is allowed to go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv, wearing:
- a sling to support a painful arm
- absorbent cotton in an aching ear (without rolling it up into a ball, rather inserting it in its existing form)
- a sanitary napkin or tampon during menstruation
- a rupture belt or other surgical belt.

630. One may go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv wearing insoles or orthopedic supports inside one's shoes (but not in open sandals, unless the support is built-in or firmly attached). One may also go out with a hat that has paper tucked into its lining to reduce its size.

631. One may be lenient to go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv wearing an ornament that serves a dual purpose, such as a gold brooch or clip in the shape of a key. A man may also wear a handkerchief solely for decorative purposes in the top pocket of his jacket, or a feather in his hat band.

632. One may go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv wearing the badge of a movement or organization or a medal or other sign of distinction on his lapel. However, a doctor should not go out with a name-tag pinned on his clothing and a person should not go out wearing a ribbon or tag to identify his position or function, as in the case of a steward or usher, since these are not, strictly speaking, decorative or ornamental in nature.

633. There are some authorities that permit going out in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos wearing an ordinary watch. However, one should adopt the more common stringent view, and go out only with a gold watch or the like, since they are ornamental in nature and one would not remove them even if they stopped.

634. There are no valid ground for going out on Shabbos into a place without an Eruv wearing a pocket-watch on a chain. Since it is carried inside the pocket, one cannot be said to be wearing an ornament. This is so even where both the watch and chain are made of gold.

635. One may go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv with a safety pin joining together two parts of a garment or a clip to secure a Yarmulka. One is also allowed to go out wearing a belt sewn onto a garment or threaded through its loops, even while it is unbuckled or untied and hanging loose.

636. One is not permitted on Shabbos to go out in a place without an Eruv wearing a garment which has spare buttons sewn into it. However, if the buttons serve a decorative purpose this is permitted.

637. One may go out wearing a coat to which a hood is attached, even if the hood is not covering one's head, but is hanging down from the back of the coat. It is also permitted to go out with a raincoat that has a zipper or buttons intended for attaching a lining in cold weather.

638. A button which has become so loose that one does not fasten it, for fear that it will come off, is not considered part of the garment anymore. Consequently, one may not go out with such a button on Shabbos, in a place without an Eruv. It is also forbidden on Shabbos to detach a loose button, or to extract threads left after a button has fallen out.

639. It is proper to examine one's tzitzith for defects before putting on one's tallith or arba kanfoth on Shabbos, if one has in mind to go out wearing them in a place where there is no Eruv. Should the tzitzith be unkosher, one is not allowed to go out with them into a place without an Eruv. While checking tzitzith on Shabbos, one should take care not to untangle any threads which have become tangled in a double knot, and not to tighten any loosened knots in the tzitzith.

640. If a cord, ribbon or button hole that is sewn onto a garment has become ripped and is useless on its own, then it is forbidden to go out in a place without an Eruv wearing this garment on Shabbos if one has in mind to fix the defect after Shabbos. However, if one does not intent to fix the defect, then the defective piece's identity merges with that of the garment and it no longer holds it's own significance (and is therefore not considered carrying).

641. If a silver chain which is used to hold together the two sides of a tallith has snapped or is defective to the point where it cannot be used, one may not go out with it into a place without an Eruv on Shabbos. This is so even if one does not intend to repair the chain. The reason is that the chain has an intrinsic value, despite being broken, and cannot be said to be merely ancillary to the tallith

642. One may go out on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv wearing clothes onto which there are sewn or stuck such items as
a. laundry labels
b. price tags
c. quality labels
d. labels showing that the garment has been checked for Shaatnez or
e. identification labels or tags.

However it is preferable not to go out with such items if one plans to remove them after Shabbos.

643. A person should not go out in a place without an Eruv on late Friday afternoon with something in his pocket or held in his hand, lest he forget and continue to carry it about with him on Shabbos. Similarly, one should refrain from putting things in one's pocket on Shabbos, even in the house, lest one forget to remove it before going out.

644. At the commencement of Shabbos, clothes should be checked to see that one is not carrying anything which one might come to take out into a place without an Eruv (or which is Muktza and may not be moved on Shabbos). On Shabbos too, one should look through one's clothes before going out into a place where carrying things about is forbidden.

645. One may not carry a handkerchief on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv unless the handkerchief is firmly sewn into a pocket before Shabbos, so that it becomes part of the garment.  The use of a safety pin is insufficient. Care should be taken not to sew a handkerchief of linen into a garment of wool (Shantnez). Where it is not possible to sew the handkerchief on or to use it as a part of one's clothing (as for a garter or belt) and one badly needs a handkerchief, as when one has a severe cold, one may go out with it inside one's hat or wound around one's wrist.

646. A key may not be hung from a belt and carried in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos, since the key is not serving as part of the belt. To carry a key on a belt on Shabbos, the key must be serving as an integral part of the belt. One way to do this is by making a belt out of an elastic cord and using the key as the "buckle" by wrapping the other end of the cord around it's teeth or tying the other end inside the key holes. Alternatively, one may use the key as part of the belt by tying the free end or ends of the cord to another part of the key, so long as the key is holding the belt together. One must not, of course, fasten a "key belt" over one's usual belt.

647. One must take care on Shabbos, when using a key carried as part of a belt, not to leave the key in the lock while opening the door towards the inside of the house (which is a different Reshus) and that the "belt" is properly re-fastened before going in or out. Where the keyhole penetrates the door into the house from one side to another (as in the case with most house locks, other than padlocks) the key may be inserted into it from the outside only while it is attached to the (even unfastened) "belt" still around one's body.

648. One may not carry a healthy child in one's hands on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv. The same prohibition applies to pushing a baby carriage, whether by oneself or with the assistance of another person.

649. A sick child who knows how to walk by himself, but who finds it difficult under the circumstances, may be carried to the doctor or taken in a baby carriage, even in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos. One should make sure however, that the child does not have anything in his hands or pockets, and the carriage is empty, except for items which might be necessary to avoid his being endangered, or items whose use is ancillary to the carriage, such as a sheet or a small mattress.

650. If one finds oneself walking in a place without an Eruv on Shabbos with something in his hand or pocket, he should not stop walking, even for an instant (for this would constitute a "Hanacha" - i.e. putting the object down) rather he should rid himself of the object in a manner which one would not normally adopt. For example, if the object is in his hand he should let it slip out, and if it is in his pocket, he should turn the pocket inside out until the object drops out.

651. If one has transferred by mistake an article from inside to outside on Shabbos, or the other way around, one ought to refrain from using the article on that Shabbos in the place to which it has been brought. Nevertheless, if it was a key which unlocked a door, one is not prohibited from entering the house.

652. On Yom-Tov in a place where there is no Eruv, one may transfer objects only if one thinks that one may have some use, however small, for the article on that day and that use is one commonly adopted by most people. An article for which one has no need at all should not be carried on Yom-Tov in a place without an Eruv.

653. One may carry a box of matches or a packet of cigarettes on Yom-Tov, whether or not there is an Eruv, even though one only needs part of the contents.

On Yom-Tov, one should not transfer anything in a place where transferring objects is prohibited on Shabbos, not even food, unless it is for the benefit of a human being (not just for an animal), and then only if it is for a Jew who does not violate Shabbath in public. A qualified rabbinical authority should be consulted as to the scope of this term in relation to the specific circumstances of each case.

654. Practical Examples of Hilchos Muktza

We learned the Halachos of Muktza and the general principles of Muktza already (Halacha 151 and on - click here). However, in the following Halachos we will be bringing specific practical examples that may not always be common knowledge.

Teffilin should be treated, for most purposes, as a Kli shemelachto le-issur (see Halachos 151 and 153 in the URL above), which means that they are Muktza on Shabbos. However, one may remove the teffilin to reach a tallith, or to use the bag for his tallith on Shabbos. They may also be moved if they are in danger of being stolen or in danger of falling, or if they have fallen or are lying in a degrading position.

655. A telephone directory is Muktza, however, one may use it to look for an address that one needs on Shabbos.

A purse made for holding money may be opened when there is no money inside, in order to take out a key.

656. The following items are Muktza on Shabbos Machmas Chisaron Kis (see Halacha 155) and may not be moved even if one needs the place, or wants to use the item for a permitted purpose.

Valuable candle sticks (even without candles), a length of cloth intended to be made into a garment, a typewriter, a radio, a camera or any delicate instrument designed for a use that is prohibited on Shabbos, mint postage stamps, good quality writing paper and parchment awaiting use by a scribe.

657. The category of Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis (see Halacha 155) includes also commercial papers such as business letters and invoices, checks, bank-notes, stock certificates, valid bus tickets and any other document which a person does not use on Shabbos and looks after carefully.

658. The category of Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis (see Halacha 155) includes also a heavy cupboard which one is careful not to move for fear that it may get damaged. However, one may open and close its doors. A wall clock and a valuable painting are also Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis.

659. Utensils that one is particular to use only on Pesach are Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis on a Shabbos in middle of the year (see Halacha 155). Matzos which one wants to use for the first night of Pesach for the Mitzva, are Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis  on the Shabbos that falls before Pesach.

660. Postage stamps are Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis on Shabbos. However, stamps that one had in mind before Shabbos to add to their collection are not Muktza at all.

Ethrogim which are intended to be sold for ritual use on Sukkoth are treated as Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis and may not be moved on Shabbos.

661. When cracking nuts on Shabbos, one should not retain the shells in one's hand for throwing away afterwards, but should throw them away or put them on the plate immediately upon cracking, since they are Muktza. If the peels or shells are fit for human consumption, or if they are fit for animal consumption (and there is an animal in the vicinity), then they are not Muktza.

662. Peels, shells, pits or bones to which some of the fruit or meat is still attached, or bones which contain marrow, are not Muktza on Shabbos and may be moved. It is irrelevant that one has no intention of eating the remaining fruit, meat or marrow.

663. A healthy person is not allowed to take medicines on Shabbos, and they are consequently muktza for him. The medicines of a person who was ill at the commencement of Shabbos are not muktza.

664. Since a Jew may not wear an article of clothing which contains a combination of wool and linen, such a garment is muktza on Shabbos and may not be moved if it belongs to a Jew. However, if a non-Jew visits a Jew on Shabbos, wearing a coat which contains, or may contain, a combination of wool and linen, the Jew may take his coat from him and hang it on a hook.

665. A piece of furniture or any other object which is broken, or part of which has become detached, if it can easily be repaired, it is Muktza on Shabbos (because one might come to repair it on Shabbos). If it may injure someone, it may be moved away. A piece of furniture or another object which is broken and not easy to repair, or part of which has become detached or lost, is not Muktza on Shabbos.

666. An ordinary handle which has come out of a door may not be replaced on Shabbos and is Muktza. If it is a type of handle that is meant to be inserted and withdrawn, it may be used and moved in the same way as a key.

667. The door of a house, or of a large cupboard or window which has come off its hinges may not be replaced on Shabbos. Such a door is muktza, unless it came off its hinges before Shabbos and one had in mind, before Shabbos, to make use of it on Shabbos for some permitted purpose.

668. Sand on the seashore is muktza on Shabbos. The same app[lies to sand being used for building, even if the children play with it. However, sand that was put into a sandbox for children to play with before Shabbos, is not muktza and may be moved as long as it is of fine consistency and dry.

669. Practical Examples of Hilchos Bosis

For a complete explanation of the laws of "Bosis" see Halachos 202-230. However, in the coming Halachos we will present some examples that weren't covered in that section.

If one has placed a muktza object on the lid of a container before Shabbos with the intention that it should remain there for the whole Shabbos, (and in such a way that the container serves the purpose of the muktza object and not reverse), the container becomes a Bosis. Even if a non-Jew should remove the muktza object, the lid remains a Bosis and it is forbidden to lift the lid to take food or any other item out of the container. The actual contents of the container are not, however, considered to be Bosis. So if the lid, together with the Muktza object, fell off by itself or was removed by a non-Jew, (or it was a barrel of wine with a tap), or if one may remove contents from the container on Shabbos.

670. A drawer containing Muktza that cannot be completely pulled out of the table or dresser, is in effect a subsidiary part of the table or dresser and therefore does not render the table or dresser a Bosis. Therefore, the table or dresser may be moved on Shabbos, but the drawer may not be opened or closed. However, if the drawer can be pulled completely out, it is distinct from the table or dresser and renders them Muktza as well (Bosis), unless the table or dresser have on them an item which is not Muktza and is more important to one than the Muktza object inside the drawer.

671. A drawer with muktza in it does not become a bosis if,
a) the muktza in the drawer is of little consequence, such as a few low denomination coins.
b) if the drawer containing muktza also has non-muktza objects which are of more importance to one.

If the muktza in the drawer are Keilim shemelachtam Le'issur, such as a hammer, screwdriver or matches, one may open and close the drawer to put things in or take things out, and the table may be moved if one needs to use it or the place which it occupies (Letzorech Gufo u'mekomo) - See Halacha 151 and 153.

672. A muktza object hanging on the door of a closet or of a house does not make the door a bosis and it may be opened and closed. The reason is that the door is important as an integral part of the closet or house, so the muktza object is not regarded as an item of consequence.

673. One may open the door of an electric refrigerator on Shabbos (if it doesn't turn on the light), and the door of an over which is not turned on, and will not be turned on by the act of opening, in order to remove or insert food, even if there is a muktza object in or on the refrigerator or oven.

Miscellaneous Halachos of Muktza

674. It is permissible to open the door of a car on Shabbos in order to take something out, so long as opening the door does not turn on a light and there is an eiruv to permit the transfer of objects from the car to the outdoors. It is even permissible to sit in the car, but it is proper to refrain from doing this, lest people suspect one of doing something wrong.

675. We learned in the previous Halacha that it is permissible to open the door of a car on Shabbos in order to take something out, so long as opening the door does not turn on a light and there is an eiruv to permit the transfer of objects from the car to the outdoors. However (it was brought to our attention later by one of our readers that) in modern cars there are many hidden sensors in the seats and connected to the door switches that engage before the ignition is started. These sensors run off the battery like the clock does. Therefore, in modern cars it is not advisable to open the door on Shabbos, unless one is certain not to cause any sensors or other electrical circuits to connect or otherwise become activated.

676. The ignition key of a car is Muktza on Shabbos and may not be moved unless one wants to use it for a permitted purpose, or if one needs the space which it occupies. However, if the key also opens the car door or the baggage compartment (assuming opening them does not activate any lights or sensors) then the key is not Muktza at all.

677. A penknife sometimes has fixed attachments which may not be used on Shabbos, such as scissors or a nail-file. However, one may move the penknife on Shabbos in order to use its blade. One must not, however, open those attachments that it is forbidden to use.

678. A key ring on which there also hangs a muktza object, such as a nail clipper or flashlight, may be used on Shabbos, since additional objects on a key ring are merely of secondary importance. Nevertheless, it is advisable to separate the keys from the muktza object before Shabbos. If one of the keys on the ring is muktza (see Halacha 676 above) one should extract the muktza key before Shabbos.

679. An empty notebook is muktza on Shabbos. Where an exercise book is partly empty, then, if the written pages are of some importance to one and one sometimes reads them then the notebook is not muktza. However, one should refrain from leafing through the blank pages. If however, one attaches no importance whatever to what is written and never reads it, then the notebook is muktza.

680. On Yom-Tov, one may move muktza to facilitate the consumption of food. Therefore, one may remove a stone from the top of a container to reach the food inside. One may also move a purse used for holding money, in order to take out the key of a locked cupboard or pantry containing food one needs.

681. Even though one may move muktza to facilitate the consumption of food on Yom-Tov, one may not

  • eat an egg that was laid on Yom-Tov,
  • crack nuts with a stone (since the stone is muktza machmas gufo - see Halacha 201)
  • or move something which is muktza in order to feed it to an animal.

682. The lighting of a "new" fire, including the striking of a match, is prohibited on Yom-Tov. Nevertheless, one may move matches on Yom-Tov, so long as they are fit to be used for lighting a fire from a flame which is already burning.

683. Laundry which was very wet when Shabbos or Yom-Tov commenced and was not then fit to be worn (as opposed to being only damp) may not be moved on Shabbos or Yom-Tov, even after they have dried during the course of the day.

684. On the days of Yom-Tov and Shabbos during Sukkoth, the S'chach and the decorations of the Sukka are muktza, even after they have fallen from the Sukka. On Chol Hamo'ed, they are not muktza but it is forbidden to derive pleasure from them. For example, one may not break off a splinter from the S'chach to pick one's teeth, nor may one eat a fruit that has fallen off of the Sukka decorations.

685. On Sukkoth which falls on Shabbos, it is forbidden to move the lulav, the aravoth or the haddasim, but one may move the ethrog, since it is permitted to inhale its scent on Shabbos. On all the days of Shukkoth, including Chol Hamo'ed, one may not derive benefit from any of the four species by using it for the purpose for which it is principally intended (other than the performance of the Mitzva), such as inhaling the scent of the haddasim or eating an ethrog.

686. One may sit on a muktza object on Shabbos. One may likewise place articles on a muktza object. In general, one may also touch a muktza object, even with one's hand, but only as long as this will not make it move. One may, therefore, not touch a lamp hanging from the ceiling.

687. A Kli shemelachto le-issur (see Halacha 201) such as a hammer, which one has picked up on Shabbos in a permissible manner (such as to use it for a permitted purpose like breaking nuts, or because one needs the place it occupied), and it is still in one's hand after he finished using it or moving it out of the way, the muktza object may be put down wherever one wishes. 

688. A Kli shemelachto le-issur which one has picked up on Shabbos by mistake, or a muktza object of any other category (see Halacha 201) which has come into one's hand in a forbidden manner must be put down right away. If this would cause one a financial loss, one may take it to a safe place (provided there are no other prohibitions involved) and leave it there.

689. A muktza object may be moved on Shabbos (even for the purpose of the muktza object itself) with a part of the body which one does not generally use for that purpose on a weekday. For example, one may move muktza with one's foot, one's elbow, with the back of one's hands, with one's arms or by blowing it, provided these are not the usual methods of moving the object of the kind in question.

690. If one finds money in the street on Shabbos, one may push it with one's foot into a hiding place where he may collect it after Shabbos. If there is no eiruv, one should push the money only for a distance of less than four amoth and then let a friend push it for a like distance, after which a third friend can do the same, and so on, each person only moving the object over a distance of less than four amoth, until it reaches its destination.

691. One may sweep the floor of a room one is using on Shabbos, even if one will move an object which is muktza in the process.

One may place an object that is not muktza on, or take an non-muktza object off of an object which is muktza, so long as it is for the purpose of the non-muktza object, even if this will cause the muktza object to move.

692. A muktza object may be moved for the purpose of another object which is not muktza, if one does so by means of another article which one holds in one's hands, so that one's hands do not come in direct contact with the muktza object (example: using a knife to clear off eggshells from the table). Muktza may not be moved in this way for the purpose of the muktza object itself, for example in order to prevent the muktza object from being lost or stolen, or because one needs it elsewhere (example: using a broom to push something muktza into a place where it will be secure until after Shabbos).

693. As a rule, a person should not pick up a child who is holding a stone or some other muktza object in his hand on Shabbos. The child should first put down the muktza object, without the adult's touching the object. If the object has no real value and the child must be picked up quickly in order to be pacified (or the child will start screaming), one may pick him up and carry him with the mukzta object, as long as there is an eiruv.

694. If a child is holding a muktza object with no real value, one is allowed to hold his hand (without picking him up). If the object has some value, one may neither lift him up nor hold his hand, even if the child will otherwise cry. This is because there is a risk one will pick up the muktza object should it drop out of the child's hand.

695. A dirty pot may be taken back from the dining room to the kitchen after it has been empty. (This is because it is a "Graf shel Re'i" - a matter of  a repulsive nature, and may be removed on Shabbos). A domestic garbage pail may also be emptied on Shabbos if it is hard to bear the smell given off by it, or if it is full to the top and one has no other garbage pail one could use.

696. An item that was not ready to be used before Shabbos is muktza even if it has become fit for use on Shabbos and even if it belongs to a non-Jew. Consequently, the following items are all muktza:

  • Milk that has been milked from a cow on Shabbos, even by a non-Jew for his own use.
  • Fruit which fell off the tree on Shabbos.
  • Fruit which was picked from the tree on Shabbos, even by a non-Jew.
  • Stones and sand, even if owned by a non-Jew, and even if the non-Jew prepared them on Shabbos for a permitted task.

697. Food which it is forbidden for a Jew to derive any benefit from, such as Chametz on Pesach or fruit which is Orla, is muktza on Shabbos even if it belongs to a non-Jew. However, if it is permitted to derive benefit from the food then it is not muktza, even if the food is not fit for eating. Examples would be non-kosher cooked meat that belongs to a non-Jew, or fruit of a non-Jew which still needs to have teromoth and maasroth separated from it. Similarly, clothing containing wool and linen (shatnez) that belong to a non-Jew is not muktza, since it is permitted to derive benefit from them, even though it is forbidden to use such clothes in the normal way.

698. An article which is fit to be used on Shabbos is nonetheless muktza if it is not worth very much and is considered valueless by its well-to-do owner, who would not normally use it at all. This is despite the fact that someone less well-off would make use of it. An example is a piece of a broken object which, although is still usable, was thrown away by its owner before Shabbos. Such an article is muktza even for people that would consider it still to have some value.

699. One may ask a non-Jew to move a Kli shemelachto le-issur (see Halacha 201) on Shabbos such as a hammer, even if one's sole purpose is to prevent it from being spoiled or stolen. However, with other categories of muktza, such as Muktza Machmas Gufo (see Halacha 201), one may only ask a non-Jew to move them if one needs the place the object occupies or one needs to use the object for some permitted task. It is also permitted in order to avoid a serious loss.

700. If one places a muktza object on a table before Shabbos, the table has a rule of bosis (see Halacha 202) and may not be moved. However, a table belonging to a non-Jew, on which he put a muktza object before Shabbos, may be moved by a Jew once the muktza object is no longer on the table (such as, if the non-Jew removed it, or the Jew removed it in a permitted manner). This is not the case however, if the non-Jew put the muktza object there for the purpose of the Jew.