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401. Soluble powders may be dissolved in water on Shabbos, and the prohibition against kneading is not transgressed, so long as the end product is a liquid. However, instant powders that turn into ready-to-eat, solid food when mixed with water, and not into a liquid, such as the powder for instant puddings, rice and mashed potatoes, should not be mixed with liquid on Shabbos, as this falls within the transgression of kneading (even if the resulting mixture has a thin consistency).

Opening containers on Shabbos

402. Opening containers on Shabbos is affected by a variety of rules, which are far from easy to apply in practice. Consequently, the preferable and proper course is to open sealed containers before Shabbos. This applies to sealed boxes, cans of preserves and the like, bottles with reusable tops that break open when removed for the first time and to all similar sealed containers.

403. Bags, cans or similar, sealed containers which are customary to be re-use after being opened and the contents removed, may not be opened on Shabbos unless they are ruined before, or in the course of opening them, and their contents spilled into other containers. This applies even if the person opening the container does not wish to re-use it.

404. It is forbidden to open a container on Shabbos that is customarily used to hold its contents inside of it after opening. This is true even if it is not customary to re-use the container after removing the contents, and even if one intends to remove the contents right away upon opening. Examples would be cans of preserves, cartons of milk or juice, or plastic or paper bags gummed or glued shut.

405. It is permissible to open a can, bag, packet or other container on Shabbos if, before or while opening it, one perforates or tears it at the side or underneath in such a way that it will be no longer fit to be used as a container. Cans of vegetables may be perforated in this way, even if the liquid inside flows out of the can. Once the can is no longer fit to be used as a container, it may be opened in the usual manner. One may also open a can on Shabbos by cutting only half-way around the lid, which one then bends, in order to remove the contents immediately.

406. Some authorities permit on Shabbos the opening of cans, bags, and paper packets which are not normally re-used, even without ruining them before (or while) opening them. However, this is only if one in fact does not intend to re-use them after removing their contents, and one does not intend to make a particularly neat opening for more convenient use.

407. Packets which are usually emptied of their contents and thrown away immediately upon being opened, such as the little packets of sugar used in restaurants, may be opened on Shabbos. One should be careful however, not to tear through lettering or pictures. It is permitted to open them even along a line specially marked for that purpose, if indeed they are thrown away once opened.

408. It is forbidden on Shabbos to take special care to make an opening of a particular shape or size in a can, container, carton  or similar, sealed container, in order to facilitate the removal of the contents through the hole. This prohibition applies even if one wishes to perforate a container in positions marked for that purpose.

409. On Shabbos, one should not open cartons of cut, folded toilet paper by cutting along the special marking or tearing along a perforation, as is usually done in order to make a convenient slot to facilitate the removal of the paper, sheet by sheet. The carton should rather be ripped open and all of the paper removed.

410. On Shabbos, one may open cardboard boxes whose lids are stuck down with gummed paper or tape, as well as the internal seal under the lid of a box or jar of instant coffee. However, the seal or wrapping should be torn open in such a way that it is spoiled, and it goes without saying that one must not intentionally tear it in a manner which leaves even a part of it fit for any use (such as tearing carefully along the edge of a prize tokens printed on the wrapper). This applies whether one is tearing the wrapper itself, or separating two pieces of cardboard stuck together (as in a box of cereal). One must also be careful not to tear through lettering or pictures.

411. It is forbidden on Shabbos to seal a bag by putting a pliable metal or plastic strip around its opening and twining the ends together, or to open a bag by untwining such a strip.

If one wishes to open a bag, box or parcel twined with a pliable metal or plastic strip or tied with string that cannot be removed without breaking it (for example when it is tied very tightly), one may snap it or even cut it through with a knife, so long as one does so in a manner that spoils it for future use.

412. On Shabbos, one may not tie the top of a plastic bag into a knot, nor may one untie such a knot. A bag tied in this way may be torn open if the knot is left intact.

413. According to many opinions, one is not allowed to remove a bottle cap on Shabbos if that very act converts it into a usable top which can then be replaced and removed at will. The prohibition applies to caps whose lower part breaks off and remains as a ring around the neck of the bottle when they are unscrewed for the first time. (It is probably also applicable to caps whose lower part cracks and widens to release their clasp on the neck of the bottle). Bottles of this kind should be opened before Shabbos. If this is not possible, one may perforate the top with the aid of a hammer or nail (without disfiguring pictures or lettering). Once a hole has been put into the top which renders it unfit for further use, it may be removed on Shabbos. 

414. In the previous Halacha we learned about perforating a bottle top on Shabbos to permit opening it for the first time. It is important to note though, that it is prohibited to make or enlarge a perforation in the nipple of a baby's bottle, or in the top of a salt shaker, because this makes these vessels fit for use. However, one may remove material blocking an existing perforation.

415. It is permissible to open a bottle on Shabbos that is sealed with a crown-cap or a cork. This may be done even with the aid of a cork-screw or a bottle opener. If the top of the bottle is covered with wax or a similar substance in which lettering or shapes are impressed, one should erase the letters or shapes before Shabbos.

Ice and Refrigerators

416. Ice may be melted on Shabbos only if the resultant water is not intended for use on it's own. Thus, fruit or bottles of drink may be cooled with ice on Shabbos, and ice may be disposed of in the sink.

417. It is permissible on Shabbos to put ice cubes into a cup or jug containing water or another drink, in order to cool the liquid off as the ice melts. Even though we learned that melting ice for the resulting water is not allowed, it is permitted here since the melted water is at no time recognizable as a separate entity. While one may break up large blocks of ice for this purpose, it is advisable not to directly accelerate the melting process of the ice inside the drink by, for example, pressing it with a spoon or with one's fingers.

418. On Shabbos or Yom-Tov one should not place ice cubes in a cup alone, with the purpose of letting them melt in order to use the water. If one has no other water, one may do this.

419. One should refrain from putting water into the freezer in order to make ice cubes on Shabbos, unless one feels a strong need for them on that day. On Shabbos, one may freeze and thaw food that is not usually eaten in a frozen state, such as bread, cooked meat (but not frozen - since it is Muktza), milk and the like.

420.It is permissible to put food into a refrigerator on Shabbos, even food that had not been previously there. One should not take frozen food out of the freezer on Shabbos or Yom-Tov in order that it be defrosted in time for use after Shabbos or Yom-Tov, or even for the following day of Yom-Tov.

421. The best way to be allowed to open an electric refrigerator on Shabbos is to connect the refrigerator to a time-switch before Shabbos which will turn the refrigerator off at prearranged hours. One may then open the refrigerator during those hours. In the absence of a time-switch, there are some authorities who hold that one should be careful to open the refrigerator only when the motor is running, while others permit it to be opened at all times. (This is assuming the electric bulb inside the refrigerator has been disconnected before Shabbos).

Note: There are some companies today that manufacture refrigerators that can be set before Shabbos to "Shabbos Mode" which turns off the bulb and runs the refrigerator on a timer as oppose to a thermostat.

422. One should remember to disconnect the light bulb of a refrigerator before Shabbos. The same goes for a ventilator, in a refrigerator that has a ventilator that operates only when the door is closed. If one has forgotten to disconnect the light before Shabbos, one may, where possible, prevent the light from being turned on when opening the door, by carefully inserting the blade of a knife through the hinge side of the door while it is still closed, and holding the switch in a depressed position.

423. In a case where one did not disconnect the bulb from the refrigerator before Shabbos and one does not have a way of holding the switch down while opening the door. If one cannot manage without the food inside the refrigerator, then one may have the plug connecting the refrigerator to the electricity removed from the socket by a child under Bar / Bas Mitzvah, while the refrigerator is closed and its motor is not in operation.

424. If no child is available to disconnect the plug then one may remove the plug oneself when the motor is off, provided that one does so in a manner which is different from that which one would usually employ during the rest of the week, and provided that the plug is one which it is usual to remove and reinsert on a weekday. In all events, one should not reconnect the refrigerator to the electricity on Shabbos, in case it should immediately start the motor.

425. Should one be in doubt as to whether one did or didn't disconnect the internal light of the refrigerator before Shabbos, there is room for permitting the refrigerator to be opened, although some authorities take a stricter view. If one opened a refrigerator and finds that the light has been switched on, one should contact a Rabbi about what to do with regard to closing the door again. The food in the refrigerator is permitted to be eaten in such a case.

Food Preparation

426. Foods which are commonly pickled or preserved by salting, such as onions and cucumbers, may not be salted on Shabbos, even to be eaten right away, except in the following ways. One may separately dip each piece in salt and eat it right away. Or, one may salt a few pieces together if one immediately adds vinegar or oil to weaken the strength of the salt.

427. Foods which are not commonly pickled or preserved by salting, but whose flavor is improved by salting - such as eggs and tomatoes, may be salted in the normal way on Shabbos, provided that they are to be used before the end of Shabbos. It is more advisable however, to salt them directly before the meal.

428. It is forbidden to pickle cucumbers, green tomatoes and the like on Shabbos, whether in vinegar or salt water. Salted fish may be put into vinegar to give it a better taste, so long as one intends to eat it before the end of Shabbos.

429. Salted fish may be rinsed or soaked in cold water on Shabbos, in order to remove the salt, as long as one intends to eat it on that same Shabbos. One may not pour hot water over it - even from a Kli Sheini, nor soak it in hot water - even from a Kli Shlishi.

430. On Shabbos, one may eat cakes decorated with lettering or designs made out of other foodstuffs, such as icing sugar, chocolate cream or other spreads, pieces of fruit or small colored candies, even though by eating them, one spoils the lettering or designs. However, the lettering or designs must not be cut before being eaten. If the cake was cut before Shabbos, the pieces may be removed even if this breaks up the design or letters.

431. Where lettering is made of the same material as the food on which it appears (as opposed to in the previous halacha), the food may be cut or broken on Shabbos, even in the place where the letters are. Common examples would be bread, cookies (biscuits) and chocolate. It does not matter whether the letters are embossed or impressed. One may also cut or break cakes or cookies made in the shape of letters or designs.

432. In some places it is customary to stick labels with various information onto loaves of bread or cakes. On Shabbos, such labels should be removed in their entirety - together with a little bread or cake - without cutting them, so as not to damage the lettering. If these labels are on the loaves of bread that are to be used for Lechem Mishneh, they should be removed only after using the loaves for Lechem Mishneh, so that the loaves remain whole for the Bracha.

433. Care must be taken on Shabbos, when cutting Salami with a brand name on its skin, not to cut or tear the lettering. Preferably, the salami should be peeled or sliced before Shabbos. The same applies to removing the shell of an egg, the peel of oranges, or any other foods that are marked or stamped with letters or numbers.

434. On Shabbos, one should not join together or shape food into a specific form for decorative purposes, as this is one of the activities forbidden under the general heading of "Building". For this reason, one should not smooth out a plate of eggs and onions while preparing them, after putting them on the plate.

435. On Shabbos, instruments designed for cutting fruits or vegetables, such as melon, beets or potatoes, into special shapes should not be used. Butter, margarine and the like should not be formed into a decorative design.

436. On Shabbos, food may be squeezed out of a tube, so long as one is not interested in the special shape which comes out of the tube, as one is when making decorations with whipped cream. It goes without saying that one is forbidden to squeeze icing or any other spread onto a cake, in the shape of letters or any particular design.

437. It is permissible on Shabbos to mark lines on a cake with a knife, to facilitate cutting it into even slices, to cut lines into the skin of an orange, so as to be able to peel it more easily, or to cut any food into equal portions.

438. Although weighing and measuring is generally forbidden on Shabbos and Yom Tov, one is allowed to weigh or measure baby food, if one has to know how much the baby eats. However, if possible, one should try and estimate the quantity rather than measure it exactly, since a rough estimate is permitted even when preparing food for an adult.

439. The whipping of eggs or cream is forbidden on Shabbos, but permitted on Yom-Tov. On Shabbos one may not prepare a stiff mayonnaise and, even if the mayonnaise is thin in consistency, it is preferable to make it before Shabbos.

440. The spreading of foodstuffs on Shabbos for a purpose other than eating is prohibited. Thus, margarine or butter should not be smeared onto chapped lips or a burn. Baking tins may be greased with margarine and the like on Yom-Tov, to prevent the dough from burning or sticking to the tin.

441. If one wishes to eat food on Shabbos which has been sewn or tied up, such as stuffed neck, stuffed chicken or Kishka, one may cut the thread with a knife or a pair of scissors. However, the removal of the thread from the food is prohibited due to the prohibition of "selection", but is permitted on Yom-Tov.

442. No prohibition is infringed on Shabbos if food is incidentally colored in the course of being prepared or having its flavor improved, provided that the coloring of the food is not one's purpose. Accordingly, one may add tea essence, red wine, orange squash, instant coffee or raspberry juice to water, as long as one is careful not to infringe on the prohibition of cooking, see Halachos 231 and on.

443. On should refrain on Shabbos from putting coloring into food with the sole intention of changing its color, even if the coloring itself consists of food. Clearly then, it is forbidden to add coloring to food or drink which one has no intention of eating or drinking, in order to improve its appearance for ornamental purposes.

444. On Shabbos, even when one's sole intention in adding coloring to food is to improve the flavor, it is preferable to add the food to the coloring rather than the other way around. Thus, it is better to make tea by putting the essence into the cup first and pouring the water in afterwards (assuming the essence was fully cooked before Shabbos and is still warm - see Halacha 273).

445. Paper table-napkins must not be folded into special shapes, as is often done when setting the table for guests, but they may be folded in half or quarters for the sake of neatness. A napkin made out of cloth which has unfolded, should not be refolded into its original folds (except with five specific conditions, which we will learn in the future IY"H).

Washing Dishes on Shabbos

446. One is not allowed to wash dirty dishes or cutlery on Shabbos, unless there is a possibility that one will need them again on the same day. However, one may even wash several pieces of the same kind of dishes or cutlery, despite the fact that one only needs one of them.

447. Dishes may be washed in the evening after the first Shabbos meal, in preparation for another Shabbos meal on the following day. However, after the last Shabbos meal in the afternoon, one should not wash the dishes until nightfall, unless they are a type of dish that one feels they may still need until the night time, such as cups, teaspoons and fruit plates.

448. If one is afraid that flies, ants or other insects will be attracted by unwashed dishes on Shabbos, one may stand them in water, even if one has no intention of using them that day. The same applies to silver dishes or cutlery which may become spoiled by the remains of food left in them.

449. Where there is a possibility that the remains of food will dry onto the sides or bottom of a pot so that it will be more difficult to clean after Shabbos or Yom-Tov, the pot may be stood in water on Shabbos or Yom-Tov, since this merely preserves the pot in its moist state. However, if the leftovers have already dried and stuck to the pot, one must not stand it in water, since this is preparation for making it easier to clean after Shabbos or Yom-Tov.

450. On Shabbos, one should refrain from pouring hot water from a Kli Rishon onto liquid soap, or onto solid soap in order to dissolve it. However, one may put solid or liquid soap into hot water that is in a Kli Sheini.

For definitions of a Kli Rishon or Kli Sheini, see Halacha 233.

451. On Shabbos, it is forbidden to pour hot water over greasy dishes, thereby dissolving the fat which is stuck to them. They may however, be put into hot water in a Kli Sheini (as opposed to a pot of water from the fire), where the fat will dissolve of it's own accord. 

452. Steel wool may not be used to wash dishes on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. On the other hand, the use of synthetic scrubbers is permitted, so long as they are not absorbent and the fibers from which they are made are not so close together that they are capable of retaining water. The use of synthetic materials which are absorbent is forbidden.

453. On both Shabbos and Yom-Tov, it is prohibited to wet a sponge or cloth. It is also prohibited to wash dishes with a wet sponge or a wet cloth, even beneath the surface of the water in a bowl or sink.  

454. One may wash dishes on Shabbos with liquid soap, and with a brush with bristles which are made of synthetic material and are not close enough together to hold water. A dish-washing paste may also be used, but in no circumstances may bars of soap be used unless they have been dissolved (either in a Kli Sheini - as we learned in Halacha 450, or before Shabbos). 

455. One may put a perforated cover over the sink drain on Shabbos while doing the dishes. (Even if this filters the larger pieces of refuse, one's only intention is not to clog the pipes, and therefore this is permitted). One may also pour dirty water through a perforated receptacle, to avoid the spreading of refuse all over the sink. The refuse that accumulates in the receptacle can then be emptied into the waste bin.

456. A domestic rubber plunger may be used on Shabbos to unclog a sink if there is an important need for this. However, the larger plungers used by professional plumbers, should not be used on Shabbos.

457. If the pipe leading from a sink is positioned so that water flows through a pipe and is discharged over sown ground, one is nonetheless permitted on Shabbos to wash one's hands in the sink or to pour water into it, without having to worry about the watering of the seeds. However, this is only so long as this consequence is unintended. It is however forbidden to pour water directly onto seeds or sown ground, even if one has no intention of watering a plant. 

458. In regard to ants and other insects which one finds on Shabbos on the floor, in the sink or on the dishes, one should not wash them away in a manner that will cause them to die, nor poison them, nor deliberately tread on them, even in the process of walking.

459. Wet dishes or cutlery may be dried with a dish towel specially made for that purpose. One may dry many dishes with one towel and need not worry about the prohibition of "Squeezing" since if the towel becomes wet enough, one will in anyway take a fresh one. Nonetheless, narrow vessels, such as thermoses, which still contain water should not be wiped dry, as this will inevitably squeeze out the towel when pushing it through the narrow opening.

460. A towel which has become wet in use on Shabbos must not be hung up to dry. However, it may be returned to its proper place, even if it will dry there, so long as this is not next to an oven, or a stove or a heater.

461. Cutlery or dishes of various similar kinds, which are jumbled together, must not be sorted, except for immediate use. The prohibition against making a selection applies even if one's intention in sorting them is to wash each kind separately or to wash only one variety, or to dry each type separately. It is, however, permitted to put each utensil in its place immediately after it has been washed or dried.

462. Polishing silverware or copperware on Shabbos is forbidden, even where one wishes to use a special polishing cloth without the addition of any liquid. Nevertheless, one is allowed to dry glassware thoroughly, even if one rubs it with the towel until it shines.

463. On both Shabbos and Yom-Tov, one is not allowed to sharpen a knife in any way whatsoever, and one is not allowed to remove rust which has accumulated on the sides of the blade. Bent fork prongs or knife blades may also not be straightened on Shabbos or Yom-Tov.

464. A non-Kosher vessel may not be made Kosher on Shabbos, neither by immersing it in boiling water, nor by heating the vessel in a flame. Also, Vessels for food (made out of metal or glass) that were bought or made by a non-Jew, may not be immersed in a Mikveh on Shabbos in order to make them fit for use.

465. It is prohibited to use a dish-washer on Shabbos, even if it goes on and off with a timer. However, on Yom-Tov it is permitted with a timer, provided one needs those dishes again the same day.

466. A person who, throughout the week, is accustomed to put the dirty dishes straight from the table into the dish washer, where they are left until they are washed (on a weekday of course), may also do so on Shabbos, but he must be careful not to sort the various dishes and utensils, even if his intention is to be able to put each object more easily into its proper place in the machine. However, if the normal place for the dishes, after their use, is not inside the machine, it is not allowed to put them in on Shabbos so that they will be ready for washing in the evening.

467. Dishes, cutlery and leftovers may be cleared off the table, even after the last meal on Shabbos, for cleanliness purposes, or as so not to attract insects. It is however forbidden to clear dishes, cutlery or leftovers from the table even in middle of the day, if one has decided not to use the room until after Shabbos. This especially becomes more applicable as Shabbos comes closer to the end. 

468. Water or other liquid which has spilled on the table cloth on Shabbos, may when necessary, be moved off gently and without application of any pressure into a cup or plate, with the assistance of a spoon or knife, even if the cloth is made of absorbent material. However, one must be extremely careful not to squeeze the table-cloth in the course of moving the liquid off and, where the liquid is colored, as in the case of red wine, one should beware not to move it onto a part of the cloth which has not yet been stained, since this contravenes the prohibition against dyeing.

469. If a small quantity of wine or flavored soda spilled on the table or tablecloth on Shabbos, the liquid may be soaked up with a cloth, as long as one is careful not to squeeze the cloth, and as long as one has no intention of soaking up the liquid in order to reuse it, even after Shabbos. However, if water spilled, as opposed to other liquids, one may only soak it up with a cloth specially intended for such use (since it is common to squeeze water out and reuse it). 

Electric Appliances

470. A timer connected to an electric circuit may be set, before Shabbos, to turn the current off and on at the desired times on Shabbos.

If the timer can be adjusted without interrupting its operation, by means of a movable dial or little indicator switches, then even on Shabbos, one may adjust it in such a way that the current will be turned off or on, as the case may be, at a later time. However, one may not adjust it that it will be turned off or on at an earlier time.

471. A timer may be adjusted on Shabbos while the electricity is off, in such a way that after it has been turned on it will be switched off again earlier than would otherwise have been the case, or while the electricity is on, in such a way that after it has been turned off it will be switched on again earlier than would otherwise have been the case.

472. When the current is disconnected on Shabbos (as in the case of a timer), one may remove a socket from the plug, or turn a switch to the "off" position, so that when the current returns, the electricity will be prevented from coming on. However, since the plug is Muktza, one should remove it with a "Shinui", such as with one's wrist or knuckles.

473. There are grounds for permitting the removal on Shabbos of a light bulb from a socket while the current is off, to prevent it from going on when the current returns. However, this is only if the bulb is one which is, from time to time, removed and put back (like a night light), or alternated with another bulb. Also, one should remove the bulb with a Shinui, i.e. not in the normal way. There are no grounds for removing a bulb which is normally left in the socket for an extended period of time.

474. There is a known Halacha from the Mishna: One may not read by the light of a candle on Shabbos, lest he come to tilt the oil to make the wick burn stronger. However, one may read by the light of an electric lamp on Shabbos, which can be adjusted to different strengths, and one need not fear that one will come to regulate it. Nonetheless, it is advisable to cover the regulator or control button before Shabbos begins.

475. One should not open a door or window near a burning candle on Shabbos, if there is reasonable likelihood that the flame will be blown out by a wind from outside, even if there is no such wind at present. However, when there is no appreciable wind outside, one may, if the circumstances make it necessary, as when it is very hot in the room, open a door or window near a candle, so long as one does so gently, without causing a draft that is likely to blow out the flame.

476. One is permitted on Shabbos to close a door or window next to a burning candle, to prevent the wind from extinguishing the flame, as long as one does so gently. A door or window may be opened next to a candle, even if this causes the flame to flicker or change shape, provided it doesn't make the candle burn more quickly.

477. On a very hot summer's day, one is permitted to request a non-Jew to turn on a fan or air-conditioning on Shabbos. A fan may not be adjusted to a higher or lower speed, but one may swivel it to face a different direction. One may also move a portable fan if one needs the space, or for convenience, taking care not to disconnect it from the electricity supply.

478. If one wishes to avoid being disturbed by the telephone on Shabbos, one should disconnect it or turn off the ringer before Shabbos. Where one has not done so, one may pull the line out of the telephone-socket on Shabbos to prevent disturbance, but not while the phone is ringing.

479. It is forbidden on Shabbos to put an empty tray, dish or news-paper under a candle to catch the wax drippings, even if the intention is only that the table-cloth should not get soiled, since this causes the objects to become Muktza. It is however permitted, if the tray or paper have on them an item that one may move on Shabbos, since this stops them from becoming Muktza. One may place a tray or paper near a candle to catch sparks, since this does not render them Muktza.

480. A lamp-shade is just like the lamp itself, and therefore it is Muktza and may not be moved on Shabbos. However, if the lamp-shade is designed to direct the light or cover up the lamp altogether, it may be adjusted on Shabbos, even if it is made in such a way that it forms part of the lamp.

Washing the Body

481. One is allowed, on Shabbos, to wash one's face, hands and feet or other individual parts of the body, in water which was heated before Shabbos. One is generally not allowed to wash or shower the whole, or the major part, of one's body in such water, even if one does so bit by bit.

482. A person who is used to washing the whole of his body in warm water every day and will suffer extreme discomfort should he not do so, or someone who is ill, may wash the whole of his body, even on Shabbos, in warm water, provided that it was heated before Shabbos. Anyone washing himself on Shabbos should take care to avoid squeezing water out of his hair.

483. One may not wash any part of the body on Shabbos with water that was heated on Shabbos, even if the water was heated in a permissible way such as by a non-Jew for someone who is ill, or by being placed next to a fire in a place where the water will only warm up and not reach the temperature of Yad Soledes (45 degrees Cent, 113 degrees Fahrenheit).

484. We learned that one may wash individual parts of the body on Shabbos with water that was heated before Shabbos. Also, water that was heated on Shabbos without any act of heating that a person has performed on Shabbos, is treated like water that was heated before Shabbos.  Examples: water which was put on the fire before Shabbos but was heated on Shabbos, water that was heated in a solar energy heater (if by using it no other cold water will flow in and become heated), and cold water which was mixed, even on Shabbos, with water that was heated before Shabbos.

485. It is permitted on Shabbos, to place cold water in the sunshine to warm it and use it for washing part of one's body. It is forbidden on Shabbos, to bathe for reasons of health in a therapeutic hot spring.

486. The entire body should generally not be washed on Shabbos, even in cold water, unless one is careful to avoid washing those parts that are thickly covered in hair. The other parts of the body may be washed in cold water, or in water that the chill was removed before Shabbos, as long as the water doesn't feel warm to the touch.

487. If one is suffering from discomfort on Shabbos, as on a very hot day, one may wash the entire body with cold water, or with water that had the chill removed before Shabbos. However, one should make sure not to squeeze out any hair. Also, one may only use liquid soap and not a soap bar on Shabbos.

488. Swimming is forbidden, both on Shabbos and Yom-Tov. It is also the practice not to bathe in the sea or in a pool, even without swimming.

489. Even when washing on Shabbos is permitted, one must not use a sponge or a cloth for that purpose. A brush may be used, only if it is made of synthetic material, and only if the bristles are not close enough together to hold water. Also, it must be kept specially for washing on Shabbos and Yom-Tov.

490. One may remove stains from one's fingers on Shabbos by rubbing with lemon juice, but not with a piece of lemon itself, nor with lemon rind, since squeezing out the juice is forbidden. One should also refrain from using paraffin (kerosene) or turpentine for this purpose.

491. One is allowed to place a baby one is washing on Shabbos onto a clean towel, regardless of the fact that the towel will become wet while the baby is washed. However one should not wash a baby on a towel which is not completely clean, since wetting a dirty towel will wash it to a certain extent. Also, the towel must be a cloth that one is not particular not to make wet, otherwise one may come to squeezing the water out.

492. If one's face or hands have become soiled on Shabbos by food which gives off color, such as cocoa or strawberries, one should try and rinse them before wiping with a napkin or towel, to avoid transferring the color to the cloth. However, with a disposable paper napkin this is not necessary.

493. One may not wash with a bar of soap on Shabbos. The use of liquid soap is permitted. It is advisable to have liquid soap ready for use before Shabbos, but, if one does not have any, one may allow a bar of soap or soap powder to dissolve in hot water in a Kli Sheini (Halacha 232). One may shake the bowl or cup, but one may not rub or crush the soap in the water with one's hands or an instrument.

494. One may dry one's body on Shabbos, including those parts which are covered by hair, with a towel, but one may not squeeze out the hair otherwise than in the process of drying it. One may rub wet hair to ease pain or discomfort, even if there is a possibility that water may be squeezed out of it as a result.

495. A wet towel may be handled on Shabbos, and one need not fear that one will come to squeeze water out of it. A wet towel must not be hung up to dry on Shabbos, but it may be hung in its usual place, even if it will, incidentally, dry there.

496. A wet towel may not be placed near a heater nor on a radiator, on Shabbos. It is permissible to dry one's hands on a towel hanging on a line strung between two trees, but one must not take it off the line.

497. It is forbidden on Shabbos to hold wet hands in the heat of an oven or heater, even if the temperature does not reach Yad Soledes (113 F, or 45 C). It is likewise forbidden to dry one's hands in the steam of hot air emitted from an electric hand dryer, even if operates on a timer. One may hold one's hands in front of a heater on Shabbos after they have dried.

498. If one's hands have been dirtied with mud or the like on Shabbos, one must not wipe them clean on a towel or with a handkerchief, which one might come to wash in order to remove the dirt. However, one may wipe one's hands on a cloth which one does not mind becoming dirty.

Body Care

499. Rubbing ointment on a baby's body on Shabbos is not permitted. However, it is permitted to apply oil of a normal consistency to a baby's body with one's bare hands, or with a piece of non-absorbent, synthetic fabric, like plastic. One may use an absorbent cloth, like cotton, only to wipe over the oil once it has been applied to the body.

500. One is allowed to sprinkle powder on a baby on Shabbos, even on a spot where the skin is sensitive or sore, notwithstanding the general prohibition against applying medications on Shabbos. One is also permitted to rub one's body with a liquid insect repellent, but not a cream or ointment.