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201. A quick review of Hilchos Muktza:

There are three main types of Muktza:

  • Kli shemelachto le-issur
  • Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis
  • Muktza Machmas Gufo

Kli shemelachto le-issur is any vessel that is used normally for doing Melacha (activities that are forbidden on Shabbos), such as: A hammer, drill, scissors, etc... Such objects are Muktza on Shabbos, but are permitted to be handled Letzorech Gufo Umekomo. (Please see Halacha 153 to see what this means).

Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis is more stringent. This refers to an object that is expensive and is used ONLY for a specific purpose, such as the knife of a surgeon, or a worker's tools of his trade, which he would not use for other purposes, even during the week. Such objects are Muktza, and are not permitted even Letzorech Gufo Umekomo.

Muktza Machmas Gufo refers to objects that do not have a Toras kli on them (i.e it do not have a particular use). This would include things like sticks, stones, money, live or dead animals, broken vessels, etc.... Such objects are Muktza and are also not permitted Letzorech Gufo Umekomo.

Basically, all types of Muktza fit into one of these three categories. To learn the specifics of the dinim, and when objects fits into one of these Muktza categories, please read through Halachos 151-200 by clicking here.

202. Hilchos Bosis.

A Muktza object which was placed intentionally on top, or inside of, another vessel, before Shabbos (and remains there when Shabbos begins), the bottom vessel becomes Muktza as well, since it becomes a Bosis lidavar ha-asur, which means that it serves as a base for the Muktza. And even in the instance that a child or non-Jew were to remove the Muktza from the base on Shabbos, the base would still remain Muktza throughout Shabbos (since Muktza is determined at the time that Shabbos starts).

203. In the previous Halacha we learned that placing Muktza intentionally (before Shabbos) on top of something else makes the bottom object into a Bosis (a base for the Muktza), and the base becomes Muktza as well. Normally when we speak of Bosis we refer to placing something that is Muktza Machmas Gufo (Halacha 154) on top of another object. However, there is a Machlokes if a Kli Shemelachto Leisur (which is less stringent than Muktza Machmas Gufo since it is permitted Letzorech Gufo Umekomo - see Halacha 153) can also make something else into a Bosis. But even if one holds that it does, the Bosis can’t be more stringent than the Muktza itself. So in such a case, the Bosis would also be permitted to be handled Letzorech Gufo Umekomo.

Note: For background information on the above terms, please see the Halachos referenced above, by clicking here.

204. Placing Muktza on top of something else (before Shabbos) makes the object underneath it Muktza as well, since it becomes Bosis (see Halacha 202). However, that is only if the Muktza was placed there with the express desire that it should lie on top of that object. For example, if one placed candles on top of a tray before Shabbos, the tray becomes Bosis (a base) to the candles. However, placing Muktza on top of another object simply because it was convenient at the time, does not make it into a Bosis. For example, if in passing, one placed a pen on top of a book before Shabbos, it is permitted to shake the pen off, and take the book on Shabbos.

205. An object underneath Muktza does not receive a Din of Bosis unless the Muktza was on top of it from before Shabbos. However, if for example a child or a non-Jew were to place Muktza on top of something else once Shabbos had already begun, the bottom object does not become Bosis. (In Halacha this is stated as such: Ain Bosis Lechatzi Shabbos).

206. If one places Muktza on top of another object in middle of the week, with the intention that it should remain there on Shabbos, the object underneath the Muktza becomes Bosis (see Halacha 202 - URL below) and is Muktza as well. However, if one placed it there, even on Friday, but had the intention to remove it before Shabbos began - and forgot, the object underneath does not receive a Din Bosis.

207. The Trumas Hadeshen holds that if one places Muktza on top of another object on Friday, then even if he didn’t specifically have in mind that it should remain there for Shabbos, the object underneath becomes Bosis (See Halacha 202 - URL below). However, the Beis Yosef holds that only when one specifically wanted it to remain there for Shabbos does it become Bosis, otherwise it is not Bosis, even when placed there on Friday. Everyone agrees however, that if it was placed there in middle of the week without the specific intention that it should remain there for Shabbos - that it is not considered Bosis.

208. A quick review of the previous few Halachos on Bosis:

  • If the Muktza was placed there, even in the beginning of the week, with the specific intention that it should stay there until Shabbos, everyone agrees that it is Bosis.
  • If it was placed there before Friday without the specific intention that it should stay there until Shabbos, everyone agrees that it does not become Bosis.
  • If it was placed there on Friday with the intention of removing it before Shabbos, everyone agrees that it does not become Bosis.
  • If it was placed there on Friday, without the specific intention that it should be there on Shabbos - it is a Machlokes if it is called Bosis.

209. If an object, such as a tray, has something Muktza on it, as well as something that is not Muktza on it, the Din is as follows: If the non-Muktza object is worth more, then the tray cannot become Bosis (Halacha 202 -URL below). If the Muktza and non-Muktza are worth the same, then the tray is indeed Bosis to the Muktza. Note: The “worth” of the object is not necessarily monetary, rather it goes after how important the object is to him.

210. If one specifies an object to be used as a base for Muktza, then it receives a Din of Bosis even if there happened not to be Muktza on it when Shabbos arrives. Examples could include, an empty wallet, or a tray that one designated to place candles on top of, or even a Shtender which was designated to be used mainly to keep the Shabbos candles on top of. However, if the designated object never had Muktza on it yet, it does not receive a Din Bosis until the first time that it is actually used as a base for the Muktza.

211. If someone finds money in their pocket on Shabbos, and the pocket uses the garment as one of it’s sides (like a standard shirt pocket today), then the garment is Bosis to the money and becomes Muktza. In such a case the garment may not be worn, and it must be removed. However, if the pocket is only attached to the garment but has it’s own two sides (like a standard pants pocket), then the garment does not become Bosis to the money, and one may shake the money out and continue wearing the garment.

212. In the previous Halacha we discussed the Din of someone who finds money in their pocket on Shabbos, and we discussed the type of pockets that would render the garment Bosis.

It is important to note though, that even if the pocket is of the type that would render the garment Bosis, still, it can only become Bosis if the money was placed there with the intention that it should remain there on Shabbos (see the conditions for Bosis in Halacha 208, URL below). Also, if it is an insignificant amount of money (something like a few pennies), the money would not be considered important enough to render the garment Bosis, and it would be permitted to shake out the money and wear the garment.

213. In a case where an object lies underneath Muktza and yet is not Bosis to it, (for example; if it was placed there before Shabbos unintentionally), still, one still may not carry the object with the Muktza on it, without first shaking off the Muktza. In other words, even though it is not Bosis and therefore not Muktza, Chazal still required that one shake the Muktza off before carrying the object around, otherwise one is carrying Muktza.  

Example: If one finds money in their pocket, but had intended to remove it before Shabbos, (which means the garment is not Bosis), still, he may not go around carrying the money in his pocket without shaking it out.

Note: The Shulchan Aruch Harav holds that since he is already carrying it, he needn't shake it out right away. Also, if he is afraid of the money getting stolen, everyone agrees that he may go to a safer place and shake it out over there.

214. If a stone (which is Muktza) is lying on top of a barrel (which is not Muktza) and one would like to move the barrel, the Din would be as follows:

- If the barrel is Bosis, (in that it fulfils the conditions laid out in Halachos 104 and 108), then one may not move the barrel at all, because it is Muktza.
- If the barrel is not Bosis, then he may move the barrel to where he wants, but first he must shake off the stone.
- If the stone....
        -- may damage the floor when he shakes it off,
        -- or he doesn’t want the stone to break by shaking it off, 
        -- or he simply does not want the stone on the floor in that particular place,
then he may carry the barrel to another place and shake the stone off over there.

215. In the previous Halacha we discussed the Din of someone who would like to move a barrel for example, that has a stone on it (which is Muktza). We learned that one must shake off the stone first. Here are some more relevant details.

If carrying the barrel to the place he wants it to be, happens also to be a place where he can shake off the stone, then he needn’t shake it off at all. For example, if one simply doesn’t want the barrel to be in the room, and he also doesn't want the stone to be shaken off onto the floor of his house, he may bring the barrel with the stone on it, outside. Once it is there,  there is already no point in having him shake off the stone, so Chazal did not require him to do so. 

216. We learned (in Halacha 204) that an object can only become Bosis if Muktza was placed intentionally on top of it, and with the intention that it should be there for Shabbos. It is important to note that if the Muktza was placed in it’s usual, set place, (such as money in the change bowl) it is considered to having been placed there intentionally, and with the intention of remaining there for Shabbos, unless he specifically had in mind otherwise.

217. If Muktza was placed on an object for the sake of the non-Muktza object, then it does not become Bosis. For example, if someone used a stone during the week to hold down a newspaper, then even if he had in mind that it should stay that way on Shabbos, the newspaper does not become Muktza. The object underneath can only become Bosis when the Muktza was placed there for it's own sake. 

218. We learned (in Halacha 204) that Muktza can make the object underneath it into Bosis only when it was placed intentionally in that place. There is a big Machlokes in the Poskim however, in a case where one wanted to place the Muktza in that particular place, but not necessarily on top of that particular object. A good example would be if someone placed in the freezer before Shabbos a bag of frozen meat (Muktza) on top of the ice-cream box. On the one hand the meat was placed in the freezer intentionally, but on the other hand, it wasn’t placed on top of the ice-cream because he Davka wanted it to be on top of the ice-cream, but rather because it was more convenient to put it there than placing the meat and ice-cream side by side (which would take up more space). The Mishneh Brurah holds we can be lenient in such a case. So in our case, one would be allowed to shake off the frozen meat and take out the ice-cream.

219. If there is a table cloth on the table, and then another plastic table cloth above it, and on top are the Shabbos candles, the Shulchan Aruch Harav writes that the plastic table cloth does not become Bosis to the candles (and therefore Muktza), since the candles were not placed specifically to be on the plastic table cloth (which is used just to keep the table clean), rather the intention was just to place the candles on the table. This follows the reasoning of the previous halacha (URL below), that if one placed Muktza on top of something else simply because it was convenient, but not because he wanted it specifically to be on top of that object, then we are lenient and say that the object on bottom does not become Bosis.

220. We learned that candles on a tray make the tray Muktza, because the tray becomes Bosis to the candles. However, R’ Moshe Feinstein holds that one may place a roll of bread on the tray before Shabbos, and that would keep the tray from becoming Bosis. This follows the reasoning in Halacha 209, that if a non-Muktza object is also on the tray, and it is worth more than the Muktza, then the tray does not become Bosis. How is a roll worth more than candle sticks? R’ Moshe holds that since the candle sticks are Muktza on Shabbos and cannot be used, the bread roll is worth more, since it can be used on Shabbos.

221. A Muktza object can make another object Muktza because of Bosis, not only by lying on top of another object, but even if the Muktza just hangs from the non-Muktza object. For example, if a dollar bill was held onto a metal Shtender with a magnet, or it was hung from the Shtender with a string, then the Shtender would become Bosis (provided all the other conditions of Bosis are met, such as those spelled out in Halacha 208 - URL below).

222. If a closet, refrigerator or a barrel is Bosis (i.e. they have Muktza on them, and fulfill the conditions in Halacha 204 and 208 - URL below), one may still open up the closet or drawers and remove what is inside, or open the faucet to remove the liquid that is inside the barrel. However, one may not move the barrel, closet or fridge because they are Bosis.

223. Directly handling Muktza is prohibited. However Tiltul min Hatzad, which means moving the Muktza indirectly, is often permitted. There are three types of Tiltul min Hatzad. We will discuss the first type today, and the second and third type on the following days.

The first type of Tiltul min Hatzad is moving the Muktza with one’s body (with an arm or a leg, as opposed to using one's hands). Such Tiltul min Hatzad is generally permitted. See Halacha 168 (on-line) for more details.

224. In the previous Halacha (#223 - URL below), we discussed the first type of Tiltul min Hatzad. The second type of Tiltul min Hatzad is if one wants to move Muktza by moving a non-Muktza object, and the Muktza comes along with it. A good example would be if one wants to move a barrel that has a stone lying on top of it. (This is only in a case where the barrel is not Bosis, see Halacha 204 and 208). This type of Tiltul min Hatzad is more stringent then the first type because it is considered a normal way of moving the Muktza. Therefore, the Din is that one must shake the Muktza off before carrying the barrel, or at least to bring the barrel to a place where one can shake off the Muktza, as we learned in Halacha 214).

Note: If there is a non-Muktza object on the barrel as well, and the non-Muktza is worth more than the Muktza object, one needn’t shake off the Muktza and may carry the barrel. In this case the Tiltul min Hatzad would help to permit moving the Muktza.

225. In the previous two Halachos (#223 - #224, URL below) we discussed two types of Tiltul min Hatzad. The third type of Tiltul min Hatzad is if one wants to move a Davar Hamutar (non-Muktza object), but along with it he must inadvertently move a Davar Haasur (Muktza) as well. The example brought down in Halacha is if one wants to pull a radish out of a pile of dirt, and by doing so he must obviously move the dirt on the sides of the radish. Or if one wants to remove a non-Muktza object from a drawer but the object has Muktza leaning on it. This type of Tiltul min Hatzad, i.e moving a Davar Haasur for the purpose of a Davar Hamutar, is more lenient then the second type of Tiltul min Hatzad (in the previous Halacha) because even though he is moving the Muktza in a normal way here, he has no intention or purpose in moving the Muktza, and therefore it is permitted.

226. We will now discuss three different levels of Bosis, in the case of a chest with drawers. The most stringent type of Bosis would be if the Muktza is lying directly on top of the chest. This would make the entire chest Muktza because of Bosis (assuming it fulfils the other conditions, such as being placed there intentionally etc... see Halachos 204 and 208).

227. If Muktza is lying inside the drawers of a chest and the drawer is a type that can be removed from the chest, then the entire chest has a Din of Bosis (assuming the Muktza fulfils the other conditions of Bosis as well). This follows the reasoning in Halacha 221, that Muktza which is attached or hung onto something makes it into Bosis. Similarly, if a wallet is tied with string or hung with a key chain on to a pair of pants, the pants become Muktza (because of Bosis).

228. In the previous Halacha we learned that a removable drawer with Muktza inside makes the entire chest into Bosis. However, if the drawer cannot be removed from the chest, then the drawer becomes batel to the chest and does not make the chest Muktza. Similarly, if there is money in a pocket that is sewn on to the pants, then the pocket becomes Batel to the pants and does not make the entire pants Muktza (see the second half of Halacha 211 - URL below).

229. Muktza inside a drawer makes the drawer Bosis, and the drawer may not be opened on Shabbos, (assuming it fulfils the other conditions of Bosis, see Halachos 204 and 208). If there is non-Muktza in the drawer that is worth more than the Muktza, then one may open the drawer on Shabbos and remove the non-Muktza within.

230. We learned before that if Muktza is lying inside the drawers of a chest, and the drawer is a type that can be removed from the chest, then the entire chest has a Din of Bosis (assuming the Muktza fulfils the other conditions of Bosis as well -  see Halacha 227). However, it is important to note that if there is non-Muktza -that is worth more than the Muktza- in the same drawer as the Muktza - or even in a different drawer than the Muktza, then the entire chest does not receive a Din of Bosis.

231. The prohibition of cooking on Shabbos.

With liquids, the prohibition of cooking takes place if the liquid reaches Yad Soledes, which is 45 degrees centigrade (or 113 degree Fahrenheit). In the case of solids, the transgression takes place when they become one third cooked. However, even if the liquid or solids have reached this temperature, additional cooking is also forbidden, up to the stage where the solid or liquid is fully cooked.

232. A Kli Rishon is a vessel in which food was cooked in, if the vessel is still on the fire. OR, even if the vessel is no longer on the fire, it is called a Kli Rishon provided its temperature is still at Yad Soledes (45 degrees centigrade, or 113 degree Fahrenheit).

A Kli Sheini is a vessel which is off of the fire, into which food is transferred from a Kli Rishon.

A Kli Shlishi is a vessel into which food is transferred from a Kli Sheini.

Generally, a Kli Sheini already cannot cook food. However, the prohibition of cooking does apply to a Kli Rishon, whether it is on, or off, the fire.

233. A fully cooked liquid which has not completely cooled off since being cooked, may be put into a Kli Rishon, provided the vessel is not on the fire. For example, one may return a bowl of soup to the soup pot, as long as the soup in the bowl is still warm, and as long as the soup pot is off the fire.

234. We learned in the previous Halacha that a fully cooked liquid which has not completely cooled off, may be put into a Kli Rishon, provided the vessel is not on the fire. However, a food or liquid which is not fully cooked, may not be put into a Kli Rishon, even if the food or liquid is still hot, and even if the Kli Rishon is not standing on the fire.

235. The prohibition against cooking does not apply to a fully cooked solid, even if it is altogether cold. Therefore, one may place it into a Kli Rishon that is off the fire. However, even if the solid is still warm, it should not be put into a pot that is standing on the fire.

236. It is not permitted to put anything onto the fire on Shabbos, nor into a vessel which is on the fire. It doesn’t matter whether it is a liquid or solid, cooked or uncooked, hot or cold. This prohibition applies even if one intends to remove the food before it reaches the temperature of Yad Soledes. Therefore, one should not put salt, sugar or spices into a pot on the fire. Nor may one warm up food by putting the dish in which it is contained into a pot of water that is standing on the fire.

237. It is permitted to place fully cooked solid food next to a fire to warm it up, even if the food will reach the temperature of Yad Soledes, (but not in a Kli Rishon on the fire). However, if the food is not fully cooked, then whether liquid or solid, it may not be placed in a position where it can reach Yad Soledes, even if one intends to remove it before it reaches Yad Soledes.

238. A fully cooked liquid which is now cold, may not be placed next to a fire to warm up, if it can reach the temperature of Yad Soledes (as opposed to solid food, see previous Halacha). However, if one needs the liquid for a very urgent purpose, or for a sick person (such as soup or tea), or for a baby (such as milk), one may place the fully cooked liquid in such a position, provided one removes the liquid before it reaches Yad Soledes.

239. The following may be placed inside a Kli Rishon which is not standing on the fire;

  • a fully cooked solid, even if it is cold.
  • a fully cooked liquid which is still warm since being cooked.

The following may not be placed inside a Kli Rishon (even off the fire),

  • any food or liquid which has not been fully cooked.
  • any fully cooked liquid which has become completely cold.

240. If the contents of two pots are fully cooked, one may transfer food from one to the other, as long as the pot that one is transferring to, is standing on a covered fire (a "Blech"). So if the food on the Blech is becoming dried out, one may gently pour boiling water into it from an urn which is also standing on the fire. One may also take out boiled water from the urn with a ladle and pour it into the pot, provided that the ladle is clean and dry.

241. One may not put any food into a warm oven on Shabbos, even if the food is fully cooked and still hot. If one placed food which was not fully cooked into an oven before Shabbos, then, in the event that the oven was opened (or opened on it’s own), one may not close it again as long as there is a possibility that the food has still not become fully cooked.

242. A pot containing food which was removed from the stove may not be put back on the stove again, unless all of the following five conditions are fulfilled.

1) One had in mind to put the pot back when removing it.

2) One is still holding on to the pot with at least one hand (even if the pot is resting on the table or counter - but not on the floor).

3) The food is fully cooked.

4) The food has not completely cooled off, and is still warm.

5) The fire, where one wants to replace the pot, is covered (such as with a Blech).

243. In the previous Halacha we learned five conditions for replacing a pot on the fire on Shabbos. If either condition 1 or 2 were breached, in other words, either one did not have in mind to put it back, or one had already put the pot down on the counter or table, then one may still return the pot to the fire if one needs the food for Shabbos, provided that the other four conditions are still fulfilled. However, if both conditions 1 and 2 were breached then one may not replace the pot on the fire, unless one would otherwise have no warm food for Shabbos at all, and provided that the other three conditions, which are absolutely necessary, are fulfilled.

244. If one wants to use only part of the food which has cooked in a large pot for the Friday night meal, one may empty what they don’t need into a smaller pot and put it on the fire for the next day’s meal provided that the smaller pot is clean and dry, and provided one fulfills the five conditions for putting a pot back onto the fire, as we learned in Halacha 242.

245. One may move a pot from a small flame to a bigger flame on Shabbos, provided that the food is fully cooked and provided that the larger flame is fully covered as well.

246. If a pot is on a Blech but is not standing directly over the flame, one may move the pot directly over the flame, provided that a) the food in the pot is fully cooked, and b) the pot is currently standing in a place where the temperature is already at least Yad Soledes (Halacha 231).

247. If the flame under the Blech goes out (or the electricity in the electric plate), one may keep the food warm by placing the pot on top of another pot of food which is on another flame, provided that a) the food in the first pot is fully cooked, and b) the first pot is still slightly warm.

248. If one does not have another pot of food available to place his pot on top of, one may put a metal dish upside down on top of the Blech, or even directly over an uncovered flame, and stand the pot on top of that metal dish.

If one has no practical way of standing the pot on top of another pot with food (as in the previous Halacha), nor does one have a metal dish to place over the Blech or fire (above), one may place the pot directly onto the Blech (a covered fire), assuming that the two conditions are met  - a) the food in the pot is fully cooked, and b) the pot is still slightly warm.

249. One is not allowed on Shabbos to wrap a pot of food in a cloth to keep it warm, even if the food is fully cooked, and even if until now the pot was on the fire and is still warm.

250. An electric stove is considered an uncovered fire, even if the electric elements are not visible. Therefore, one may not replace a pot of food which has been removed, unless the cooking surface is properly covered with a Blech. (This applies even if the other four conditions are met - see Halacha 242). An electric plate however, which is designed merely to keep food warm, and indeed the temperature cannot be altered, is considered a "covered fire", and a pot may be replaced on it, assuming that the other four conditions are met.

251. Even though an electric plate is considered a “covered fire” for the purpose of replacing pots (see previous Halacha) however, a pot which is not just being replaced may not be put on a plate of this kind, even if the food is fully cooked, and even if one only wants to warm it up a bit.

252. One may move a pot which is on top of an electric plate, into a hotter position provided that a) the food is fully cooked and b) the temperature at the position from which the pot is being moved is at least Yad Soledes. (The same Din applies with a covered fire - see Halacha 246). A common case would be if the beans in a pot of Choulant are not fully cooked. In such a case one may not move the pot to a hotter area of the hot-plate or Blech.

253. One may place a pot before Shabbos, on a stove that will go on with a timer on Shabbos, provided that the stove is covered (with a Blech). However, on Shabbos one may not place a pot on such a stove, even if the stove is currently not operating.

254. On Yom-Tov, once may cook on an electric stove that was on since before Yom-Tov, or that turns on automatically with a timer. However, one may neither raise or lower the temperature of an electric stove on Yom-Tov, since it usually works by turning off one element and lighting another in it’s place.

255. If the fire goes out on a gas stove on Shabbos, one may turn off the gas tap to prevent the gas from escaping. However, one should try and do this with a Shinui if possible, such as with the backside of the hand.

256. A gas or electric oven that is regulated by a thermostat may not be used on Shabbos, since opening and closing the door may result in an increase in the size of the flame or flow of electricity. However, on Yom-Tov such an over may be used.

257. One may not stir food that is in a Kli Rishon on the fire, whether the food is fully cooked or not. This prohibition applies also to removing food with the help of an instrument or vessel, from a pot which is on the fire, since this will also result in the food being stirred.

258. Food that is fully cooked and no-longer standing on the fire may be stirred, and hence one may also remove food from such a pot with the help of an instrument. However, if the food is not fully cooked, then as long as the temperature is still above Yad Soldedes one may not remove food from the pot - even if it is no longer on the fire - since this will result in the food being stirred.

259. It follows from the previous Halachos, that if one wants to remove Choulant from the pot on Friday night in order to taste it, he may do so only if the Choulant is fully cooked (including the beans). Also he may only remove food from the pot if he removes it first from the fire. One should be very careful though when replacing the pot onto the Blech, that the conditions in Halacha 242 are fulfilled.

260. One may remove boiled water with a ladle from an urn that is standing on the fire, (as opposed to food, see Halacha 257). The water left over in the ladle may also be returned to the urn (if the urn is on a covered fire or Blech), as long as one had in mind to return the leftover water, and as long as the water still has not cooled down altogether.

261. Whenever it is permitted to remove food or water from a Kli Rishon (Halachos 258-260), one should make sure that the instrument used for this purpose is clean and dry, before placing it into the pot. Otherwise, one is causing the food or liquid on the instrument to cook. This applies even if one removes the pot from the fire before removing the food.

262. One may not cover a Kli Rishon on Shabbos with a lid, plate or anything else, unless one is absolutely sure that the food inside is fully cooked, (including chicken bones being sufficiently soft to be edible). The reason is because covering a pot enhances the cooking process. This applies whether the Kli Rishon is on the fire, or has already been removed, in which case covering the pot constitutes a continuation of the cooking process.

263. A pot containing cold food may be placed on top of another pot standing on the fire, in the following cases:

  • Uncooked food, only on condition that it cannot reach a temperature of Yad Soledes.
  • Fully cooked liquid, even if it will reach Yad Soledes - as long as it is still warm from being cooked.
  • Fully cooked solid food, even if it is cold or frozen, and even if it will reach Yad Soledes, as long as it not in a position where it will roast.

264. We learned in the previous Halacha that one should not place a pot with liquid in it on top of another pot on the fire (unless the liquid is still warm after being originally cooked). This prohibition applies as well to a pot containing a large quantity of congealed fat, since in normal circumstances melting is not permitted on Shabbos. However, if this restriction would result in hardship, one may place the pot with the fat, on top of another pot on the fire.

265. We learned (Halacha 263) that one may not warm up a cold liquid by placing it on top of another pot on the fire. However, if a pot contains mainly solid food but has within it a small amount of fat that mingles with the rest of the food as it melts, one may heat it up by placing it on top of another pot on the fire. Also, one may dissolve a sauce that is customary to eat in a congealed state, such as fish sauce.

266. If a pot of food was placed on top of another pot, either from before Shabbos or on Shabbos (where it is permissible, see Halacha 263), one may not place the upper pot onto the fire when removing the pot underneath. Rather, one should place the upper pot on top of another pot which is on the fire. If there is no other pot, one may place a metal dish upside-down on the fire and place the pot on that, as long as the food in the upper pot is fully cooked and still partly warm, and as long as one does not place the metal dish in a place where it could become red hot from the flame.

267. Water heaters are usually constructed such that when hot water is drawn from them, cold water flows in and is then heated up. Therefore, one should not draw water from a water heater on Shabbos. This applies even when the boiler or heater is not switched on, because when it does turn on, it will inevitably heat up the water which was drawn in.

268. A  thermostatically regulated urn may be used on Shabbos, so long as:

  • the water was boiled before Shabbos
  • the water never fully cools down before being heated up again
  • no cold water enters the apparatus on Shabbos
  • the tap is not at the very bottom of the apparatus, otherwise the heating elements could burn out on Shabbos if all the water is removed, and this may cause one to add cold water on Shabbos to the urn.

269. Should one leave on, or mistakenly turn on the hot water tap of a boiler or heater in which water is being heated on Shabbos, one may not turn it off again on Shabbos, if the hot water pouring out is being replaced by cold water. The reason for this is because by turning it off and stopping the outflow of hot water, one will cause the cold water that flowed in, to be heated up.

270. It is forbidden to pour hot water from a Kli Rishon (see Halacha 232) onto a cold liquid, whether or not previously boiled. Likewise, it is forbidden to pour hot water from a Kli Rishon onto a solid which was not yet fully cooked. However, if the solid has been fully cooked, one may pour hot water on it from a Kli Rishon to warm it up again.

271. It follows from the previous Halacha (#270), that one should be careful not to pour water from a Kli Rishon onto tea leaves that were not boiled up before Shabbos. Also, one should not pour water from a Kli Rishon into a plate or cup which is not perfectly clean and dry. Otherwise, one will essentially be cooking the substance inside.

272. On Shabbos, one should not pour hot water from a Kli Rishon onto thin cooked cereal (porridge) to warm it up. Rather, one should use a Kli Shaini  (Halacha 232) for this purpose. However, if the cereal was already cooked before Shabbos but has since dried up, one may add hot water to it directly from a Kli Rishon.

273. One may pour hot water from a Kli Rishon onto a liquid which has not fully cooled down since being cooked, or onto a fully cooked solid, even if now cold. Consequently, it is permitted to put still-warm tea essence (that was cooked before Shabbos) into a cup and to empty hot water onto it from an urn that is on the fire. It is desirable if one wishes to do this, to put the pot or cup containing the tea essence on top of the urn before Shabbos, to ensure that it really does stay warm.

274. The ladle with which food is removed from a Kli Rishon should be free of the remains of uncooked food or liquid when it is first inserted into the pot. When it is placed into the pot again, one should pay attention that any food or liquid remaining on it should not be cold.

275. A ladle that is inserted into a Kli Rishon should be treated as a Kli Rishon. Accordingly, one may not empty the contents of the ladle onto any food or liquid which has not been fully cooked, regardless of whether such food or liquid is hot or cold (see Halacha 270).

276. On Shabbos, one should refrain from emptying water from a Kli Rishon onto such products as sugar, coffee, soup powder, cocoa, or milk powder, even if they have already been cooked in the process of manufacture. Rather, the hot water should first be put into a Kli Shaini  (Halacha 232) and then these substances can be added.

277. On Shabbos, one may warm up a bottle of milk by standing it in an empty pot and pouring boiled water from a Kli Rishon over it. One may also change the hot water as many times as necessary, in order to warm it up more. However, the hot water should at no time completely cover the bottle.

278. On Shabbos, one may not stand a bottle of milk in water, which is in a Kli Rishon on the fire, in order to warm it up. One may however, stand the bottle in a Kli Rishon which is off the fire, provided that the relationship between the amount of milk in the bottle to the amount of hot water, does not allow the milk to reach a temperature of Yad Soledes (Halacha 231). 

279. One is allowed on Shabbos, to pour boiling water into the hollow bottom section of a child's feeding plate, in order to heat up the food in the upper section.

Hot water may be poured even from a Kli Rishon standing on the fire, into a large quantity of cold water, provided that the cold water is not heated thereby to a temperature of Yad Soledes (45 degrees centigrade, 113 Fahrenheit) or more.

280. A large quantity of cold water may be poured on Shabbos into hot water, so long as the hot water is NOT in a Kli Rishon standing on the fire. Also, there must be so much cold water that it cannot be heated to a temperature of Yad Soledes. It is important though when doing this, that one should pour the cold water into the hot water in one swift action, so that the hot water will not have time to warm up even the first few drops of the cold water to the temperature of Yad Soledes.

281. Water and oil may be put into a Kli Sheini (Halacha 232) at a temperature of Yad Soledes, even if they were not previously boiled. However, there are certain foods which become cooked even in a Kli Sheini. Since we are not sure what they are, one should not put other uncooked foods into a Kli Sheini that is standing at a temperature of Yad Soledes. For example, one should not place a raw egg in a plate with hot food, nor put tea leaves, cocoa or lemon into a Kli Sheini of hot water or milk.

282. The following substances are generally cooked or boiled during the process of manufacture, and accordingly, they may be placed into a Kli Sheini (Halacha 232) on Shabbos, even at the temperature of Yad Soledes (45 degrees centigrade or 113 degree Fahrenheit): Table salt, cooking salt, sugar, saccharin, soup powder or cubes, milk powder, instant cocoa, coffee and tea. However, one should refrain from pouring water from a Kli Rishon onto them, as we learned in the previous Halacha.

283. We learned that even a fully cooked, now cold, liquid may not be placed into a Kli Rishon on Shabbos. However, such a liquid may be placed into a Kli Sheini. A common example would be to place previously boiled tea essence or milk, into a cup of hot water on Shabbos. This would be allowed, since one generally pours from the urn into the cup, and therefore the hot water is in a Kli Sheini.

284. We learned that a previously boiled liquid may be placed into a Kli Sheini on Shabbos, even if now cold. Processed, sweetened lemon juice, soup essence and sterilized milk, which are all cooked during the course of manufacture, fall into the same category, and may be placed into a Kli Sheini. There are grounds for the view that pasteurized milk, too, may be poured into a Kli Sheini.

285. Solids, such as potatoes, pieces of meat or whole beans, which have a temperature of Yad Soledes (45 degrees centigrade) should generally be treated as a Kli Rishon. This is so even if the solids have been put into a Kli Sheini or Shlishi, since they store the heat within themselves. Consequently, on Shabbos, one should not pour cold soup onto a piece of hot meat in a plate, nor should one place a hot potato into a plate of cold soup.

286. We learned in the previous Halacha that solids, which have a temperature of Yad Soledes (45 degrees centigrade) should generally be treated as a Kli Rishon. Therefore, one should not put butter or seasoning onto hot potatoes on Shabbos, nor place pickled relish or uncooked salad onto hot meat or kugel. However, one may put salt on hot food. Also, there are those who rule that Ketchup, which is cooked during the process of manufacture, may be poured onto hot meat.

287. We learned that there is no prohibition of cooking on Shabbos with a fully cooked solid, as long as it is not placed into a pot on the fire. However, there is a prohibition of cooking a solid that was previously fried, baked, or roasted. Likewise, one may not fry, bake or roast a solid, even if it has been previously fully cooked or boiled. (We will explore some examples in the coming Halacha, Iy"h).

288. On Shabbos, one may not place bread, cookies or Matzoh into a Kli Rishon or a Kli Sheini that contains hot tea or soup, nor may one pour the contents of a Kli Rishon on to them. However, if one removed soup from a Kli Rishon with a ladle or spoon which has been dipped into the pot for only a short amount of time, there are grounds to consider the ladle a Kli Sheini on it's own. Consequently, one would be allowed to place bread or Matzoh into the soup, which is a Kli Shlishi.

289. Even though there is no prohibition of cooking a food that was already fully cooked, there is a prohibition of roasting a food that was previously cooked (in gravy or liquid). Therefore, cooked meat without gravy may not be placed on top of a pot standing on the fire, since now it will roast in the dry heat.

290. Deeply fried foods are considered "cooked" and not fried. Therefore on Shabbos, one may place Chinese noodles or soup croutons that were fried in oil, into a Kli Rishon that is not standing on the fire.     See Halacha 288 (URL below) for more background on this.

Toasting bread on Shabbos is prohibited, because, even if it is not close enough to the fire to scorch, it's texture changes and it hardens

291. Many fine distinctions are made in the rules about leaving pots on the fire before Shabbos. To avoid complications, it is best to ensure that 1) before Shabbos the pot is placed on a fire which is covered (with a Blech or an electric plate), 2) the contents of the pot, whether solid or liquid, have been previously cooked or boiled. (We will explore this in more detail in the coming Halachos, Iy"h).

292. We learned in the previous Halacha that before Shabbos, one may leave food only on a covered fire. However, one may leave an urn on an uncovered fire before Shabbos if:

  • they have no intention of removing the urn the entire Shabbos
  • the water inside the urn is at the temperature of Yad Soledes (45 degrees centigrade, 115 Fahrenheit) before Shabbos.

In order to assure that the urn has reached this temperature, one should make sure to place the urn onto the fire, a considerable amount of time before Shabbos begins.

293. We learned in Halacha 291 that before Shabbos, one may leave food only on a covered fire. However, one may leave a pot on an uncovered fire before Shabbos if they are not planning to return the pot to the fire after removing it on Shabbos. Also, the contents of the pot must be half cooked before Shabbos, or if there is no other possibility, at least one third cooked.

294. It is forbidden on Shabbos to wrap a pot on all sides to keep it warm, even if the food is fully cooked and even if the pot is not on the fire (and the wrapping therefore does not increase the temperature). However, one may wrap a pot of fully cooked food on Shabbos, if care is taken to assure that the pot is not covered on all sides, or that the material surrounding the pot does not touch it on all sides. This applies even if the pot is on the fire.

295. One may not, even before Shabbos, wrap a pot in such a way that the temperature will increase on Shabbos due to the wrapping. For example, one may not wrap a cloth around a pot which is standing on a Blech. However, a pot of food may be kept warm by wrapping before Shabbos, if the wrapping merely preserves the existing heat. Consequently, before Shabbos, one may wrap a pot that is not standing on the fire.

296. We learned in the previous Halacha that before Shabbos, one may wrap a pot that is not standing on the fire. One may also wrap a pot that is standing on top of another hot pot, as long as the pot on the bottom is not on the fire.

On Shabbos, one may not totally immerse an unopened can of food in a pot of hot water, even if it is not standing on the fire. (This is included in the prohibition of "Hatmana" i.e. wrapping, on Shabbos).

297. We learned that completely wrapping a pot that is standing on the fire is not permitted before Shabbos (see Halacha 295). However, one may place a pot into a closed metal box before Shabbos, even if the box is on the fire, since the pot is not in contact with the walls of the box on all sides.

298. Even though the purpose of a thermos is to retain heat, it is considered a Kli Sheini, and not considered wrapping (Hatmana). Consequently, one may fill a thermos with hot water from a Kli Rishon on Shabbos, provided one ensures that the thermos is completely dry inside before filling. The same applies to a hot water bottle.

299. The prohibition of wrapping food ("Hatmana") to keep it warm, only applies to food which is in a container. In such a case, the container containing the food may not be completely wrapped by a cloth on Shabbos, nor may the container be placed into other hot food in such a way that it is completely covered. However, one may place solid food that is not in a container, into other hot food on Shabbos. For example, one may place cold meat into hot soup on Shabbos, as long as the soup is not on the fire.

300. Ice cubes may be put into water to cool it down on Shabbos, even though the ice will melt. Nevertheless, one is not permitted to place ice into an empty cup with the object of drinking it when it has melted. The same prohibition applies to Yom-Tov as well.