1. (Wednesday. June 5 - 2002) It says in the Torah: Zachor - remember, VShamor - and guard, the holy day of Shabbos . From there we learn out that it is a Miztva DOraysah to remember the Shabbos by praising it. This Mitzva we fulfill through Kiddush. Most Rishonim hold that even without wine one can be Mikayem the Mitzva by simply praising Shabbos, as we do in Maariv on Friday night. There are other Rishonim that hold that the mitzva of Kiddush is only on wine, but not necessarily to drink it. And Rashi (in Nazir) holds that one can fulfill the Mitzva only through drinking the wine. However, everyone agrees that Miderabanan one must drink from the wine to fulfill the Mitzva.
2. Women are Chayev in the Mitzva of Kiddush just as men are. Therefore, just as a man can be Motzi a women, so too a women can be Motzi a man. However, it is preferable that women be Motzi only men of their household.
3. If one does not have wine at night, he may make Kiddush on Challah. He should simply replace the Bracha of Hagafen with the bracha of Hamotzi, and place his hands on the Challa during Kiddush. He should also lift the Challos for the Bracha of Hamotzi.
4. Kiddush on Challa is only Bshas Hadchak because Challa is the essence of the Seudah, and doesnt show that you are taking something special just to make kiddush on. This applies even at night when there is a special Bracha in the Kiddush, besides the Bracha of Hamotzi. However if someone doesn't have wine by day, then since there is no special bracha in the day time Kiddush, it is preferable to make Kiddush on Chamar Medina, (a drink that has importance in that land) rather then to make on Challa. This is because Chamar Medina at least shows that you are taking something special for Kiddush, which the Challa doesnt show - since the Challa constitutes the essence of the Seudah.
5. Rabainu Tam holds that even one who likes Challa more than wine should still make Kiddush on wine Friday night. This is because, even though the night time kiddush has a special Bracha (as opposed to the day-time Kiddush), however since Challa is the essence of the Seudah it doesnt really show that you are taking something special just to make kiddush on. Others disagree with Rabainu Tam and hold that one should make kiddush on Friday night on which ever he likes better. However Li'halacha, we make Kiddush only on wine (if he has wine), unless one has great discomfort from wine, in which case he may make Kiddush on Challah -at night or "Chamar midina" -by day.
6. Even if one has enough money only for wine and for the barest minimum Oneg Shabbos (such as a little piece of fish), he should rather spend it on the wine and eat this little fish than to make Kiddush on Challah, thereby saving the rest to buy something more for the Seudah. This applies both by night and by day. However, if he likes Challah more than wine, AND he only has only the barest minimum Oneg Shabbos, then the Mishna Berurah says he can be Somech on the Rishonim who hold that Challah is Ok if one likes it more, and instead of wine he may spend the rest of his money on something more for Oneg Shabbos, besides the little fish.
7. As soon as a person accepts Shabbos upon themselves they may not eat until they hear Kiddush. When a women lights the candles, she is Mekabel Shabbos and must wait for kiddush before eating. If she is nursing or pregnant, she may accept Shabbos on condition that she still be allowed to eat and drink until sunset. However, once sunset arrives she must wait for Kiddush. If she wants, she may make Kiddush for herself and eat a Kzais of Mezonot, since Kiddush must be in the place of the meal. However, she may not make Kiddush, drink, and then wait for her husband to come home before eating, because this would constitute a Hefsek between Kiddush and the Seudah.
8. The obligation of Kiddush for men on Shabbos by day, only applies after davening Shacharis, since before Shacharis it is forbidden to eat a meal. However, a woman is Yotzeh the mitzva of davening even with Brachot (mainly with Birkat hatorah, since it has in it Shevach, Hodaah and bakasha). Therefore, after saying Brachot on Shabbos morning, a women must not eat or drink before hearing Kiddush. Rather, she must make Kiddush and eat a Kzait of Mezonot so that the Kiddush will be Bmakom Seudah, (in the place of the meal).
9. One may accept Shabbos while it is still day time, from Plag Hamincha and on. Plag Hamincha is one and a quarter hours before sunset (shaot zemaniyot). If one does accept Shabbos when it is still day time, he may make Kiddush and eat even before he davens Maariv, as long as it is before a half an hour to the time of Maariv. However, once it is within a half an hour to Maariv one must not begin a meal, lest he forget to daven.
10. The Rama holds that one may wash for bread and make the Bracha Al Netilat Yadayim even before making Kiddush, and this would not constitute a Hafsek between washing and Hamotzi. However, the Mechaber holds that this would be a problem of Hefsek and one should only wash right before Hamotzi. According to Halacha, we try to do like the Mechaber and wash only after Kiddush (besides the Kehilot from Germany, who do like the Rama Lichatchila). However, if one mistakenly washes his hands for Hamotzi before Kiddush, we hold like the Rama and therefore he may make Kiddush then, and make Hamotzi straight away after drinking.
11. After Shabbos, one must not eat before making Havdala. However, if one remembers that he didnt make Havdala yet, after he already made the Bracha of Hamotzi for Melava Malka, he should take a bite and then make Havdala. However on Shabbos, if one remembers that he didnt make Kiddush yet after making Hamotzi, he should not take a bite, but rather continue holding the Challah and make kiddush on it, by continuing with the Bracha Asher Kiddishanu until mekadesh Hashabbos. Then he may take a bite. Later during the meal, he should say the first part of Kiddush (Vayichulu) as well.
12. On Friday night, if one remembers that he didnt make Kiddush after taking a bite of the Challah, he should make kiddush on wine straight away before continuing the meal. The same applies if he remembers at any time during the meal. If he remembers after Benching, and any time throughout the night that he didnt make Kiddush yet, he must make kiddush and eat a Kizayit. If he remembers in the morning that he didnt make Kiddush the night before, he should make the night-time Kiddush after davening, just without the paragraph of Vayichulu (since Hashem finished at night). If he remembers that he didnt make kiddush while he is in middle of eating the third Seudah, if it is after Shkiya he should make Kiddush without the name of Hashem, and eat a Kizayit .
13. If one does not have anything to make kiddush on at night, he may rely on the praise of Shabbos that was mentioned in Maariv, and eat without Kiddush. However, if he thinks that he may be able to obtain wine or bread later on, he should wait until mid-night. If he is weak though, he may eat right away. Then, if he is able to obtain Kiddush later, he should make Kiddush then and eat another Ki'zait.
14. By day, if one does not have wine, he should make Kiddush on Chamar Medina (a drink that has importance in that land, such as beer). If he doesnt have that, he should make on bread. If he doesnt have that, he may eat right away. Even if he may be able to obtain one of the above later on, he neednt wait (as oppose to night time, where we say he should wait until mid-night if he will get wine for Kiddush).
15. One should cover the Challot when making Kiddush. The main reason for this is because it shows that the Challot are specially for the honor of the Shabbos, since we uncover the Challot only AFTER praising the Shabbos (in Kiddush). However, if they were uncovered before Kiddush, it looks as if they were there anyway, and not specially for Shabbos. Another reason we cover the Challot is so that the Challot should not be embarressed that we are making Kiddush on the wine, and not on them. And the third reason for covering the Challot is as a rememberance of the Mun in the desert, which was covered from underneath and above. Because of the third reason, we leave the cover on the Challot until after making Hamotzi.
16. The size of the cup for Kiddush must be big enough to hold a reviis. Also, the Kiddush cup should be filled to the top for Kiddush, even if the cup is able to contain more than a reviis. However, if one does not have enough wine to fill up the cup, he may still make Kiddush on it, as long as there is at least a reviis of wine in the cup.
17. Even though kiddush must be made on a cup that has in it at least a reviis, one need not drink a full reviis, rather a Melo Lugmuv is enough. Melo Lugmuv is the amount that one can hold in one side of his mouth, which by most people is Rov reviis (most of a revi'is) and this is enough to be considered a Shiur Shtiah. By a very big person, one full side of his mouth may be even more than a reviis, however, even such a person is not required to drink more than a reviis, because a reviis is considered a standard Shiur Shtiah for everyone.
18. The Melo Lugam of Kiddush should be drunk Li'chatchila within the time it takes to drink a Reviis. If not that, at least within Toch Kidai Achilat Pras, which is about 4 - 8 minutes. If one drinks only a Melo Lugmuv and wants to pour the rest of the wine back into the bottle, he must first add wine to the cup (or any other liquid which is not Pagum). This takes away the problem of Pagum from the cup, and he can then pour it back into the bottle for future Kiddush use.
19. There is a mitzva for those who hear the kiddush to drink wine as well. This need not be from the wine of Kiddush itself. However, there is a special blessing in the wine of Kiddush. Also, this mitzva of everyone drinking applies only if there will be enough wine left for Kiddush the next day and for Havdala.
20. Just as the wine one makes Kiddush on should not be Pagum (wine that was already drunk from), so too the others who hear Kiddush should also not drink from wine that is Pagum. If they drink from the Kiddush cup itself, there is no problem of Pagum. However, if one wants to give out wine from the Kiddush cup to the others, he should pour the wine into their cups before he drinks from his cup, because once he drinks from his kiddush cup, the wine would be Pagum. However, he should do this only if he will still remain with a reviis after pouring, since the one who made Kiddush must drink from a full Reviis. If he would not be left with a reviis after giving out, he should rather drink first from his cup and then add wine to the cup (or any other liquid which is not Pagum). This takes away the problem of Pagum from the cup, and he can then give out wine to the others.
21. One should wash the Kiddush cup from within and without before Kiddush. If it is already clean he doesnt have to, but it is still good to wash the cup unless it's already sparkling clean. One should stand for at least the first four words of Kiddush Yom Hashishi Vayechulu Hashamayim since these words contain the acrynom of G-ds holy name.
22. While saying the paragraph of Vayechulu during Kiddush, one should look at the candles. This is a Segulah for healing the eyes according to some. (According to Rashi though, the eyes are healed only through drinking from the wine of Kiddush). From the Bracha of Hagafen until the end, one should look upon the cup he is holding, so as not to be distracted from what he is saying.
23. One neednt go looking for wine for Birkat Hamazon. However, if there is already wine on the table, there is a Mitzva to use a cup of wine for Bentching. Lichatchila one should drink it after bentching, and then make an al Hagefen. However it is still better to Bentch on wine and not drink it, then to Bentch without wine altogether. If he does not drink it, he may pour it back into the bottle. However, if he did drink from it and wants to return the rest of the wine to the bottle, he should first add wine to the cup so that it shouldnt be Pagum.
24. Havdala is similar to Kiddush because the purpose of them both is to make Shabbos holy. Kiddush is to pronounce Shabbos holy when it enters, and Havdala when it leaves. For this reason the Rambam holds that Havdala is D Oraysah just like Kiddush. Therefore, If YomTov falls out on Motzai Shabbos, one may make the Havdala of Shabbos and the Kiddush of Yom Tov on the same cup of wine, even though generally we dont do two mitzvot at once, since they are really the same Inyan.
25. Who has to drink the Melo Lugmuv of the wine of Kiddush? 1- The most stringent authority is the Geonim, who hold that only the one who makes Kiddush may drink the wine. 2- The Ra"sh holds that the one who made kiddush need not drink at all, but rather any one of those that heard the Kiddush may drink the Melo Lugmuv, including a woman. 3- And the most lenient is the Ritv"a, who holds that everyones drinking together can be added up to equal the Melo Lugmuv, and no one person alone need drink the full Melo Lugmuv. However, according to the Ritv"a everyones drinking must be within Toch Kidai Achilat Pras, which is about 4 - 8 minutes, and only from the original kiddush cup. And the Derech Chaim says that Bidieved, the Ritv"a applies even if the one who made Kiddush doesnt drink at all. Lihalacha: The best is to do like the Geonim say, that the one who makes Kiddush should drink. However, the Chafetz Chaim holds that one should not protest even against those who use everyones drinking together to add up to the Melo-Lugmuv, like the Ritv"a.
26. If one speaks between making Kiddush and drinking the wine, he must make again just the Bracha of Boreh pri Hagafen. However, if he spoke about the Kiddush or even about the meal, he neednt repeat the Bracha and may drink right away.
27. If the wine spills between making Kiddush and drinking, he should refill the cup and make again Boreh Pri Hagafen, since when he made the original Bracha his mind was only on the wine that spilled, and not on the wine he added again now. However, if when he made the original Bracha he had in mind to drink other wine during the meal besides what was in his cup, he neednt repeat the Bracha.
28. If one finds that he made Kiddush on something other than wine by mistake, if there is wine on the table as he made Kiddush, and he planned to drink from it, then he may pour out the other liquid and fill up his cup with wine and drink it immediately. Even if he spoke and said something like this is Borsht!, it is not considered a Hefsek since it has to do with Kiddush. However, if there was no wine on the table, he must make the entire kiddush over again on wine, (and not just the Bracha of Hagafen).
29. If part of the wine spills from the cup before he drinks and there does not remain a reviis in the cup, the Magen Avraham holds that he should add wine to the cup. And if he didnt have in mind to drink other wine besides what was in the cup then he should make again the Bracha of Hagafen. The Eliyahu Raba holds though, that one neednt drink from a cup that has a reviis (although Kiddush must be made only on a reviis), and therefore he needn't add wine if some of it spills. Lihalacha, it is best to drink from a full Revi'is of wine like the Magen Avraham. However, as far as the others who heard Kiddush and want to drink from the wine of Kiddush, it seems that the Minhag Ha'olam is to be somech on the Eliyahu Raba, that they needn't drink from a full revi'is.
30. One should choose a good wine to make Kiddush on. If possible, it should be at least three days old. Forty days old is even better. Kiddush wine also has to be strong enough that if one adds 3 times as much water to the wine it should still taste like wine.
31. One who hears Kiddush but doesnt taste from the wine, must make a separate bracha if he decides to drink wine during the meal. However, he needn't make a Bracha on other beverages since we Pasken that all drinks besides wine are considered part of the meal, and are Batel to the Hamotzi. However, there are Shitot (by the Sefardim) that hold that drinks are not considered part of the meal, and therefore if you do drink from the wine of Kiddush you will be Ok even according to those Shitot.
Wine with a bad taste or smell is not Kosher for Kiddush. However, wine with a vinegary smell, yet still tastes like wine is Kosher bidieved.
32. The Bracha of Hagafen for wine takes off the obligation of a Bracha on all subsequent beverages. However, if after making a bracha of Hagafen one has already taken his mind off drinking wine, he must make a shehakol when drinking other beverages. But he neednt make a Boreh Nefashot, since the Bracha Achrona of wine takes off the obligation for other Brachot Achronot, since he began drinking wine before drinking the other beverages. However, if he started drinking other beverages first, and then made a Hagafen, he must make both a Boreh Nefashot and an Al Hagefen.
33. From the words Vkarata Lishabbos Oneg we learn that Kiddush must be in the place of the Oneg, or Bimakom Seudah, which means in the place where the meal takes place. However, to fulfill "Kiddush Bimakom Seudah" one does not need all the Halachos of Seudas Shabbos (such as Lechem Mishna). One must simply eat at least a Kizait of Mezonot in the place he made Kiddush. Food made of any one of the five grains is Kosher for makom Seudah. If one is weak and does not have Mezonot, he may be somech on those that hold that even fruits is enough to be considered Bimakom Seudah (Shiltos Hagiborim).
34. If one does not have Mezonot for Kiddush bimakom Seudah one may drink an additional reviis of wine, besides the Melo Lugmuv that he must drink for Kiddush itself. There are those that hold that even if one drinks only a reviis of the Kiddush wine it suffices for Makom Seudah. However, this Halacha applies only by day time, and only Bishas Hadchak. An example of Shas Hadchak would be, if on Sukkot one makes Kiddush inside the house because of rain, and then the rain stops, he should drink a revi is of wine in the house to be Yotzeh bimakom Seudah rather eat a kizait of Mezonot or Hamotzi in the house. This is because since the rain has stopped he is no longer allowed to eat Mezonot out of the Sukkah (wine is less of a problem to drink out of the Sukkah then Mezonot). Agav, If he can see the place he made Kiddush from the Sukkah, he may eat the Mezonot or Hamotzi in the Sukka, and it would still be called Bemakom Seudah.
35. Even from one end of a room to another is still considered Bimakom Seudah, no matter how big the room. If one had in mind to make Kiddush in one room and eat in the next, and he can see from one room to the next, it is still considered Bimakom Seudah. If he can see from one room to the next but he didnt have in mind, or if he had in mind but cant see from one room to the next, it is still Makom Seudah, but only Bidieved.
36. (In Halacha #35 we discussed going from one room to another. Now we will discuss leaving the house altogether). If one makes Kiddush in the house and then wants to go to the courtyard, or to another house to eat: 1- Had in mind and can see: If he had in mind to do so as he made Kiddush, and he can see from one place to the next, then Bidieved it is still considered Bimakom Seudah. 2- Had in mind but can't see: But if he cant see from one place to the next, it is NOT considered Bimakom Seudah even Bidieved, and he must make Kiddush over again in the new place. 3- Didn't have in mind, but can see: If he can see from one place to the next, but he didnt have in mind, even though it is not really good even Bidieved, still, he should not make Kiddush again because of Safek bracha.
37. Another aspect of Kiddush Bimakom Seudah is that one should begin the Seudah immidiately after Kiddush, without interuptions. However, if one needs to go to the bathroom, or forgot something pertaining to the meal, it is not considered a Hefsek. Lichatchilah however, the table should be set before Kiddush and one should try to avoid any sort of Hefsek.
38. Since all of Klal Yisrael are araivim to each other, one can be Motzi someone else Kiddush even if the one making Kiddush does not eat (and therefore is not Yotzeh Kiddush himself). The same applies if he was Yotzeh Kiddush already (and ate), he may still make Kiddush for someone else. However, one should not do this by night unless those that are hearing the Kiddush are unable to make Kiddush themselves, or for children who have reached the age of Chinuch. In any case, even if they do know how to make Kiddush, bidieved it is still good. Keep in mind though, that if the one making Kiddush has not been Yotzeh Kiddush before and will not be Yotzeh now either by eating, he may not drink the Melo Lugmuv of Kiddush, but rather he must give it to someone else to drink.
39. Bimakom Seudah means that one must eat where he heard Kiddush, but not necessarily where Kiddush was made. In other words, even if someone hears Kiddush from his neighbors house and his neighbor had in mind to be Motzi him, it is good enough. However, he should not make a Hefsek, and he should be ready to eat as soon as he hears kiddush (from the neighbor).
40. It is best to make Kiddush at night in front of the candles, because the Seudah is supposed to be in front of the candles. However, if one feels great discomfort inside the house (because of heat or insects for example), he may make Kiddush and eat outside. This is because after all, the candles are only for the pleasure of Oneg Shabbos. However, the best thing to do in such a case would be to make Kiddush inside, in front of the candles, and then to eat a Kizait of Mezonot or bread, and only afterwards to finish the Seudah outside. Even though one should not go from place to place in middle of eating bread, however for a Mitzva it is allowed, and Oneg Shabbos is considered a Mitzva.
41. One who drinks before Shacharis does not have to make Kiddush, since it is not yet the time for eating. However, a sick person who is allowed to eat before Davening must make Kiddush first.
42. If one does not have wine for Kiddush by day, they may make Kiddush on Chamar Medina. If not, on a Challah, if not, even on a Kizais of bread, and if they dont have even that, they may eat right away.
43. If one likes whiskey better than wine, they may make Kiddush on whiskey by day, but only with a Reviis of whiskey. However, there are those that hold that since the Shiur Shtiya of whiskey is just a shot, one may make Kiddush on even a shot of whiskey, but it should be in a small cup so that the cup should be full. The best though, would be to make Kiddush on a revi is of whiskey and to drink a Melo Lugmav.
44. One must use 2 Challos for Lechem Mishneh that are Shlaimim (full). Even during the weekday, one should make Hamotzi on a Shalem if possible. If one does not have a Shalem, he should make Hamotzi on a full Kizait, or on the biggest piece of bread that he has.
45. A Challah which is a little bit burnt is still called a Shalem, and may be used for Lechem Mishneh. If a piece of the Challa falls off, as long as 23/24 of the Challa remains (95.8%), it is still called a Shalem.
46. Those who are Yotzeh the Bracha of Hamotzi should not eat their slice of bread before the one who made the Bracha does. However, if they all have Lechem Mishneh individually, they may eat before the Mevarech - even though they were Yotzeh with his Bracha. (But they should still not talk before the Mevarech eats, since they are being Yotzeh with his Bracha).
47. If one was unable to eat a Seudah on Friday night, the Halacha is that they should eat three meals on Shabbos by day. If someone is still full from the second Seudah and is unable to eat the third Seudah, he is not required to force himself to eat if it is Tzar for him. However the saying goes, a wise man has eyes in his head, and one should not over eat by the second seudah, so that they may have appetite by the third.
48. It is a Minhag to start Davening Shacharis on Shabbos a little later than during the week. This is because the Torah says in relation to the Korbanos of the weekday Baboker and in relation to the Shabbos Korbonos it says Ubeyom Hashabos. The Shabbos davening should be over before Chatzos because it is proper to eat the Seudah of Shabbos before Chatzos.
49. If someone forgets to say Nishmas Kol Chai in the Shabbos davening and he already said Yishtabach, he may say Nishmas after Yishtabach before he starts Birkas Krias Shema. (However, he should not repeat Yishtabach). On Shabbos, if one says the Birkas Krias Shema of the weekday by mistake, and forgets to add the Shabbos parts, he neednt repeat the Brachos, but he should say the section lakel asher shavas after Shmoneh Esrai.
50. Musaf should be davened up until the seventh hour (1 hour after Chatzos - Shaot zemaniot). After this time one may still daven Musaf for the duration of the day, but he is called a Poshea.
51. On Shabbos afternoon, if one did not yet daven Musaf yet and he has a choice to daven either Mincha of Musaf, he should daven Musaf first. However, once the time for Mincha Kitana has arrived (2 1/2 hours before Shekiyah) he should daven Mincha first. If someone only has time to daven either Mincha or Musaf before it becomes to late, the Mishna Berurah implies he should daven Musaf, because Musaf has no Tashlumin and Mincha does.
52. Before davening Musaf, it is not yet really considered the time for eating and therefore if someone feels weak and does not have Kiddush, they may eat even a Kizais of Mezonos without Kiddush. However if one has Kiddush, then even if he doesnt feel weak, he may make Kiddush before Musaf and eat bread, up to a Kibaitza, or fruits. However, one should not to be Mamash Kovea Seudah before Musaf. Also, he should make Kiddush again after Musaf (since before Musaf is not really the time for Kiddush yet).
53. It is forbidden to fast on Shabbos for the sake of a fast, even for one hour. However if one wants to have more appitite to eat the meal, one may fast up until Chatzos, but not later.
54. If someone has the same food for Shabbos that they eat the rest of the week (doctors orders for example), they should eat the meal either a little earlier than usual or a little later than usual, to show the difference between Shabbos and Chol. Eating earlier shows a love for Oneg Shabbos, and eating later also helps because there's more appetite, and therefore more enjoyment.
55. If there are fruits on the table during the meal, one should not wait to eat them after benching, because then he is causing an unnecessary bracha (the bracha Achrona). However according to the Shulchan Aruch harav, if he wants to make extra brachos to fulfill the mitzva of 100-Brachos-a-day then he may leave them for after benching, thereby gaining the extra Brachos. The best though, is to bring the fruits to the table after benching.
56. We learn out the Mitzva of three meals on Shabbos from the Pasuk Ichluhu Hayom etc... ("eat it" - [the Mun] - "today") The Pasuk says the word hayom three times. (Another interesting Note: Targum translates Hayom as Yoma, which is the same gematriah as Ochel - 57). R Chidkeh says that the three meals mentioned in the Pasuk must be by DAY, since it says Hayom, and therefore we would really have to eat FOUR meals on Shabbos. Although we dont Pasken like R Chidkeh, there are places that are Makpid to have a Kiddush with Mezonot after Shacharis to fulfill also R Chidkehs view.
57. One should have Lechem Mishneh for the third meal of Shabbos as well as the first two. Indeed, one should have Lechem Mishneh for any meal they eat on Shabbos, even if they eat 5 meals! And the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch brings from Gadol Echad that even if one makes Kiddush on Mezonot (like many Shuls do after Shacharis), there is an inyan to hold two pieces of Mezonot while making the Bracha, if possible.
58. If one doesnt have Lechem Mishneh for the third meal, he should at least try and make Hamotzi on a Shalem. If not, at least on a Kibaitza (size of an egg) of bread, because this is the shiur of a Seudah. However, the Rash holds that Mezonos is also good for the third meal (or any foods made from the five basic grains). Tosfos holds that even with foods that go with bread (such as meat and fish) one can be yotzeh the third meal. And the most lenient opinion of all is the Ran, who holds that even fruits are enough to be yotzeh the third meal.
59. The third meal can be eaten from the time of Mincha (1/2 hour after Chatzos) and on. To be Yotzeh both of the day time meals in one meal, he may do as Follows: Bench in middle of the first Seudah, go daven mincha, come back, wash again, and continue the Seudah where he left off.
60. It is a Mitzva to honor the third meal with good foods, as much as possible. The third meal is much more important than Melava Malka, and therefore if one has special foods that are enough for only one meal, he should rather eat them by the third meal than save them for motzoi Shabbos.
61. It is good to make a Hagafen on wine during the third meal - (Mishneh Berurah brings from the Rambam). Women are obligated in the Mitzva of 3 meals, as well as the mitzva of Lechem Mishneh, just like men.
62. The Mitzva of Lechem Mishneh and the Bracha of Hamotzi are two separate mitzvos. Therefore, one can be Yotzeh Lechem Mishneh from someone else by answering Amen to his Bracha, and then going to make Hamotzi on their own piece of bread. One may even be Yotzeh Lechem Mishneh from someone else before washing bidieved, (but he should wash right away without a Hefsek, since Lechem Mishneh must be part of the Seudah).
63. We say Tzidkascha in the Shabbos Mincha davening. Tzidkascha is an inyan of Tziduk Hadin, i.e. acknowledging the righteousness of G-ds judgment. This is because Yosef, Moshe and David all passed away on Shabbos afternoon. However, on a day that we would normally not say Tachnun during the week (like Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, or if theres a chuson) then there is no Tziduk Hadin, and therefore we dont say Tzidkascha.
64. There is a Mitzva deoraysah of Tosefes Shabbos, which means to add on to the Shabbos. To fulfill this Mitzva, there are many Shitos in how much one should add on. The Mishna Brura encourages accepting Shabbos a half hour before Shkiyah. Others hold that 12 minutes is also enough. However, even if one misses the Shiur of a half hour, or of twelve minutes, he should still try and accept Shabbos as early as possible because there are so many different shitos and inyanim. However, the minimum Shiur is that one is chayev to accept Shabbos at least two minutes before Shkiyah (R Moshe Feinstien).
65. The Mitzva to add on from weekday to Shabbos, applies when Shabbos leaves as well. On Motzai Shabbos, one may not do Melacha until three small stars are discernable in the sky. Even if these stars are far apart, shabbos is still considered over. However, one should wait until they can see three small stars close together, because this takes an extra few minutes, and in this way one fulfills the Miztva of Tosefes Shabbos.
66. If one forgot to say Ata Chonantanu in Maariv of Motzai Shabbos they needn t daven again. One may not eat before Havdalah. Therefore, if one forgot to say Ata Chonantanu and also forgot and ate before Havdalah, then they must repeat Shemona esrai since by eating they are showing that they were Somech on the Havdala they made in Shemona Esray. (Even though it was a mistake, this is a Knas Chazal give him).
67. When making the Bracha of Besamim in Havdala, one should pass the Kiddush cup to the left hand and hold the besamim in the right hand. This is because we always hold the object of the Bracha in the right hand while making the Bracha. Still, the cup should be held in the left hand since all the Brachos of Havdala should be on the cup of wine as well.
68. By Havdala, it is a siman Bracha to fill the cup to over flowing with wine. Women do not drink from the cup of Havdala (see the Shlah).
69. One should put out the fire of Havdala with the wine from the cup. One should dab some of the wine from Havdala on their eyes to show Chivuv mitzva.
70. It is best to make Havdala on wine. Even wine that is Pagum (drunk from), is still better than Chamar Medina. However, one can be yotzeh Havdala as well with Chamar Medina, such as beer. (On Motzai Pesach however, there is a special inyan to make Havdala on beer since he couldnt drink it until now, and is therefore dearer to him).
71. If one has no wine (or Chamar Medina) to make Havdala on now, but they will be able to get some before Chatzos on Sunday morning, they must not eat until then. However, if they wont be able to get wine until after Chatzos, they may eat now, and make Havdala when they get the wine.
72. If one always benches with a cup of wine, even during the week, then on Motzai Shabbos, after Shalosh seudos, he may drink the wine after Benching, even before Havdala. However, if one does not always bentch with a cup of wine, then he may not drink the cup of wine that he used for bentching in Shalosh se'udos, before Havdala, rather he should use that same cup of wine that he bentched on, and make havdala with it.
73. If one has only enough wine for either Kiddush or Havdala, Kiddush has priority. However, if he can make Kiddush on Challa on Shabbos then he should save the wine for Havdala, since Havdala cannot be made on Challa, while Kiddush can.
74. The Rama says that the minhag in our countries is to make havdala standing up, since the derech of parting (from a friend, for example) is while standing. The Mechaber writes though that it should be sitting, for Kviut (Sfardim generally do like the Mechaber).
75. If one hears Havdala in Shul but had in mind to make at home and therefore did not have in mind to be Yotzeh, then indeed he is not Yotzeh with the Shul Havdala. Even if one was yotzeh Havdala already, but he has a child of chinuch age (6-7) years old at home who did not hear Havdala, he may make Havdala again for the child, since he has the Mitzva of Chinuch. However, if the child can make Havdala alone, it is better.
76. It is a Safek if women are Chayev in Havdala, and therefore the man should make Havdala for her. If he was Yotzeh Havdala already but his wife was not, then she should make on her own.
77. It is preferable that a woman not drink from the wine of Havdala (shla"h), therefore someone else should make Havdala for her. However, a women who does make Havdala must drink the wine. Also, it is more correct for a woman who makes Havdala not to make the Bracha of Al Haesh.
78. If one does not have wine for Havdala, he should still make a bracha on Besamim and on the candle even without the wine. If he does not make those brochos on Motzai Shabbos however, he may no longer make them, even when he gets access to wine.
79. One may not use Besamim from a bathroom for Havdala, since bathroom Besamim is used to take away bad smells, as opposed to being used exclusively for the pleasure of good smells. On Motzai Yom Kippur we do not make a Bracha on Besamim, even if it falls out on Motzai Shabbos.
80. It is good to use Hadasim from the Lulav as Besamim on Motzai Shabbos, since they were already used for a mitzva. However, once the Hadasim start getting dry it is better not to use them exclusively, but rather to mix them in with the regular Besamim.
81. If one was Yotzai Havdala already and is making again for his friend, he may make Borai Minai Besamim again - (since its a Birchat Hanenin), but he must also smell the Besamim himself.
82. If during Havdala someone is far away and cannot have pleasure from the Besamim and / or the candle, he may wait until after Havdala when he has access to them, and then make the Brachos on the candle and besamim by himself. If someone cannot smell (bad cold, for example), he may not make the bracha of Borai Minai Besamim (not even to be Motzi someone else).
83. One neednt exert much effort in finding a candle and Besamim for Havdala. However, on Motzai Yom Kippur one should exert effort, because the candle shows the difference between Yom Kippur and other Yomim Tovim, (that on other Yomim Tovim we are allowed to use fire for cooking, and on Yom kippur we are not). The candle should also be lit from a fire that was burning from Erev Yom Kippur (for this same purpose of differentiating between Kippur and other Yomim Tovim).
84. The mitzva of the Havdala candle can be done with a candle. However, it is a Mitzva Min Hamuvchar to use a torch made from wax, as the Havdala candle. A torch by definition, is two wicks or more, where the fire of one wick touches the other. However, this is only if wax separates between the wicks. That is why Havdala candles are made from strands of wax woven together, so that each wick should be separated from the other by the wax of its own strand.
85. Chazal say that one should not make the bracha of "Boreh Moreh Haaish" unless he has some benefit from the light. However, we pasken that one neednt have actual benefit, but rather he must simply be close enough to the light to be ABLE to have benefit, as in being able to distinguish between the coin of one country and a similar coin from another country (such as between a Shekel and a dime). However, the minhag is to use the light to distinguish between the fingernails and the palm of the hand. If one can distinguish between them, it is a sure sign that he is close enough to the candle to make the bracha.
86. The Rama writes that when making make Boreh Moreh Haaish, one should hold the cup of wine in his left hand, and gaze at his right hand in the light of the candle. (Lehalacha though, it doesnt seem that everyone noheg like that, rather many people put down the cup). One's palm should be facing upwards and his fingers curled inwards, so he may use the light to distinguish between the nails and the skin. The fingernails are a siman Bracha because they grow fast, and the palm is a symbol of the Mazal of man (some people gaze also at the lines of the palm for this reason).
87. One may make Havdala until Tuesday, if he did not have a chance to make before hand. However, the mitzva of the candle and the Besamim is only on Motzai Shabbos. On Motzai Yom-Tov one may only make Havdala until the night of the following day, if he didn't get a chance to make on Motzai Yom-Tov.
88. On a Motzai Shabbos that falls out on Yom-Tov (like Sukkos does this year, for those who live in Chutz La-aretz), one may not do Melochos Ochel Nefesh (which is allowed on Yom-Tov), before hearing Havdala in the Kiddush of Yom-Tov, unless they say first - Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh LeKodesh. However, preparations for Yom -Tov are allowed even before Baruch Hamavdil, once it is dark outside. A Gut Yom-Tov!
89. The Mahril writes that on Motzai Shabbos one should start the week with a mitzva right away, and he suggests folding the Talis from Shabbos. The Darkai Moshe writes that one should not turn on any lights or fires on Motzai Shabbos before saying v-ata Kadosh after Maariv. However, the gabai of the Shul may turn on the lights in Shul for the kavod hatzibur as soon as it gets dark....
90. There is one limb of the body which does not receive sustenance from any food other than from the food of Melava Malka on Motzai Shabbos. That limb is called the Luz. This limb never disintegrates in the grave, and from it the body will be rebuilt at the time of Techiat Hamaisim. The Elya Raba writes that the reason that specifically this limb stands up at Techias hamaisim is because Adam Harishon brought death to the world when he ate from the Aitz Hadas on Friday. However, since this limb doesn't benefit from standard food, only from the food of Motzai Shabbos, the decree of death was never applied to this limb.
91. If one plans to eat Melava Malka right after Havdala and he has the bread already on the table, he should cover the bread during Havdala, (just like we do in Kiddush on Shabbos). It is proper not to engage in serious work on Motzai Shabbos before eating Melava Malka.
92. One should try and make Melava malka as nice as possible, with meat and other cooked foods. There is also an Inyan to have a new cooked food for Melava Malka, and not just leftovers. However, even if one feels that he can only eat a Kizais of bread, one should still set the table for a meal in honor of being Melava the Shabbos queen. Anshai Maseh (men of merit) even place candles on the table.
93. One can be Yotzeh Melava Malka with Mezonos if he feels that he is too full to eat bread. However, if he is even too full for Mezonot he should at least eat fruits, which some Shitos hold is also enough.
94. Chazal say that on Motzai Shabbos hot bread, hot drinks, and even a hot shower (rashi) are all good for healing (melugma). The Machtzis Hashekel writes that women are also obligated in the Mitzva of Melava Malka, since it is part of inyanai Shabbos.
95. On Moztai Shabbos, one may make Havdala even if the whole town is still keeping Shabbos. However on Erev Shabbos, even if it is still day time, once the town has accepted Shabbos, one may not even tell a non-jew to do a Melacha, unless it is for the purpose of a Mitzva or Shabbos. (The same conditions apply when telling a goy to do Melacha during Bein Hashmashot).
96. If someone was Mekabel Shabbos while it is still day, he may tell another Jew who was not Mekable Shabbos yet to do a Melacha for him. However, once a person's Shul was Mekabel Shabbos, he may only tell a Goy to do Melacha, but not another Jew. (And if the whole town was Mekabel Shabbos already, see the previous Halacha - number 95).
97. One is Mekabel Shabbos on Erev Shabbos either by saying I am now Mekabel Shabbos, or by thinking it in his heart. One is also Mekabel Shabbos automatically, by beginning Kabalas Shabbos in Shul.
98. A women is mekabel Shabbos with candle lighting. Bishas Hadchak, a woman may light on condition not to be Mekabel Shabbos. A man who lights however, is not automatically mekabel Shabbos with lighting like a woman (assuming he didn't specifically have in mind to). Lichatchila though, it is still better for a man who lights to make a condition not to be Mekabel Shabbos.
99. It is a Mitzva to accept Shabbos with joy. That is why we say Kabalas Shabbos, sing Lecha Dodi and turn around and say Boi Kala. When turning around, there is also an inyan to gesture with the hands as if inviting or accepting a great personage ....
On Yom Kippur that falls out on Shabbos, since we do not eat there is no Neshama Yesaira and we do not say Kabalas Shabbos.
100. Taking a bath or shower for Shabbos should not be left for the last minute, but should rather be done as early as possible after Chatzos. Especially for women who must light the candles on time, and especially in the winter time when Shabbosim start early. However, small things like washing the hands, face and feet should be left for closer to shabbos so that when Shabbos arrives one should feel fresh.