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101. If one sees that his wife will not be able to light the Shabbos candles on time, he should light instead of her. If however they both miss the permissible time for lighting, it is obviously better that they not light, even if it means being left in the dark, than to do even a safek Melacha.

102. If a women forgets to light one Shabbos, or she misses the Zman for lighting, Chazal give her a knas and she must add one candle more than the number she usually lights, for the rest of her life. However, if she was unable to light because of circumstances out of her control, then she needn’t add a candle.

103. It is obligatory to light at least one candle in honor of the Shabbos. As a hidur, one should light two candles, in honor of Zachor and Shamor. Another hidur is that the candle (or candles) should be nice looking, and placed in a nice setting. The Eliya Rabba writes that it is good to have a special candle to light the Shabbos candles with each week.

104. When accepting Shabbos, the table should be covered in honor of the Shabbos queen. This applies to all the tables in the room where one plans to eat on Shabbos. The tables should remain covered the entire Shabbos. Therefore, it is a good idea to use a plastic table cloth on top of the regular table cloth, so that when the plastic gets dirty from the meal, it can be removed and the table will remain covered. As an extra honor for Shabbos, the Biur Halacha writes that it is also kidai to cover all of the tables in the house with a table cloth.

105. When accepting Shabbos the house should be clean. The Mishna Brurah writes that the beds in the house should be made as well, in honor of the Shabbos.

106. One should buy special clothes for Shabbos. Even one’s pants should be Shabbosdik. He should also have a special Talis for Shabbos if possible. This Halacha applies to one's own obligation of honoring of the Shabbos, even in a place with no other Jews around.

107. Between the time the sun sets and actual nightfall, is called Bein Hashmoshos. During this time, one may no longer do any Melachos. The same applies even if one is not sure if it is already Bein Hashmoshos or not. If someone does Melacha during Bein Hashmoshos, even by mistake, he may not have any benefit from that Melacha until Motzai Shabbos.

108. During Bein Hashmoshos one may tell a goy to do a Melacha, even a Melacha doraysah. However, this is only if it’s for a Mitzva, or for the purpose of Shabbos. This also applies, if it’s for an important matter (such as lighting a Yartzeit candle), or for something that he is nervous about, even if it doesn’t involve a big monetary loss. However, the Mishneh Brurah holds that it should at least have something to do with Shabbos, otherwise one should not tell a goy to do Melacha during Bein Hashmoshos.

109. As a special Hidur, some people light seven candles for Shabbos, to symbolize the seven days of the week. Others light ten candles, to symbolize the ten commandments. The Rama writes that as long as there are two candles, one may add as many candles as they want, and they still won't loose out on the inyan of Zachor Veshamor.

110. One should light the candles when the want to be Mekabel Shabbos. Even if one wants to light without being Mekable Shabbos, it should not be early in the day but rather at a time where it is understood that these candles are being lit for the honor of the Shabbos and not for other purposes. However, once someone stops doing Melacha, even without being Mekabel Shabbos fully, they may light even if it's early, since clearly it is for the honor of the Shabbos. (Note: Early, but not before Plag Hamincha, which we will discuss in the coming Halacha. Stay Tuned!).

111. The earliest one can be mekable Shabbos is Plag Hamincha, which is an hour and a quarter before Shkiyah (Shaos Zemaniyos). Before Plag Hamincha, even if one is mekabel Shabbos, it is not considered a Kabala. (There are those however that stop doing Melacha before Plag Hamincha - anytime from Chatzos and on). If one lights the Shabbos candles before Plag Hamincha, he must turn off the fire and light them again, even if he lit with a Bracha. This is because it is too early still to be able to tell that the lighting is in honor of the Shabbos.

112. Generally, all Brachos on mitzvos are said before the mitzva. However, since generally when making the bracha on lighting the candles one is mekabel Shabbos, they wouldn't be able to light after the Bracha. Therefore, we light the candles first and then make the bracha while covering our eyes. This way, the benefit that we have from the light it is after the bracha, when we remove the hands from our eyes . By doing it such, it is as if we made the Bracha before the lighting, since the Bracha comes before we benefit from the light. On Yom-Tov however, when it is permitted to light even after being Mekabel Yom-Tov, we indeed make the Bracha before lighting. (Note: Sefardim say the Bracha before lighting even on Shabbos - R’ Ovadia Yosef).

113. The mitzva of candle lighting for Shabbos is divided into two parts. 1. Chovas Gavra - There is a mitzva for every person to light, 2. Chovas Habayis - There is a mitzva for there to be candles lit in the house. As far as Chovas Gavra is concerned, if one’s wife lights, that is enough to be Motzi him as well. As far as Chovas Habayis is concerned, as long as someone lit candles in at least one of the rooms in the house - with a Bracha, it suffices for the entire house. However, it does not suffice if someone owns two houses, where there are people living in the second house. In such as case, one must light in both houses.

114. In the previous Halacha (113) we discussed how the Mitzva of lighting is divided into two parts. 1. Chovas Gavra 2. Chovas Habayis. If someone is a guest at someone's house, and he wasn’t given a specific separate room, then he can be Yotzeh Chovas Gavra through his wife, and he can be Yotzeh Chovas Habayis through his host. If he doesn’t have a wife to be Yotzeh Chovas Gavra, he should chip in with the cost of the host’s candles, and be Yotzeh through his host. However, if he is given a separate closed room, then even if he has a wife lighting somewhere else, he must light himself in those lodgings, in order to be Yotzeh the Chovas Habayis of that room. (Since he is a guest, he makes the room as if it were a separate house).

115. If someone rents an apartment for Shabbos and there is no host through which he can be Yotzeh Chovas Habayis, then even if he has a wife lighting at home, (which helps for Chovas Gavra), he must still light on his own to be Yotzeh Chovas Habayis (see halacha 113). If three men rent an apartment together and their wives are lighting for them at home, then only one of them has to light and make a bracha to be Motzi everyone the Chovas Habayis. But they should all chip in to the cost of the candles.

116. A couple who are guests in someone elses house have a chiuv to light even if the host lights as well, and even if they are not given a seperate room. This is to be Yotzeh Chovas Gavra (See halacha 113). The Rama writes that they may light even in the same place as the host, since each extra candle adds a little bit more light and joy to the house. However if they do have a seperate room, it is better for them to light in their room.

117. If three men rent an apartment for Shabbos together with their wives, the Rama holds that all three couples have a chiuv to light, and they must all make a Bracha on the lighting. (This is to be Yotzeh Chovas Gavra, as oppose to where their wives light for them at home, see the second half of Halacha 115 ). This din applies as well, to three unmarried men. And the Rama explains, that even though there is already light in the room from the other lightings, still, each candle adds a little bit more light and joy, and therefore they can all make a Bracha and light.

118. One should light the Shabbos candles where they will be eating. If one does not eat at home, and the candles are already off when they return to the house, then it is a Bracha Livatala. Therefore if one is not eating at home, they should make sure to light candles that will still be burning when they return.

119. If someone didn’t daven Mincha yet, and he comes into Shul after they were Mekabel Shabbos, but before Maariv, he may still daven Mincha in the Shul, even if it means that the Shul will be davening Maariv while he is still davening Mincha. (However, it is better for him to daven outside the Shul if possible).

120. If someone walks into shul once the Tzibur already started davening Maariv of Shabbos, he must daven Mincha outside the Shul. This applies even if it still before Shekiyah, and even if there are other Shuls in the city which did not yet accept Shabbos.

121. On Erev Shabbos, if someone says Burchu of Maariv with the Tzibur, even if it is still before Shekiyah, he may no longer daven Mincha and must Daven a Tashlumin for Mincha in Maariv. This is because Barchu with the Tzibur is a strong Kabalas Shabbos.

122. To daven Mincha after one has been Mekabel Shabbos, is problematic . However, if one is Mekabel Shabbos on their own (as opposed to Betzibur, see Halacha 121), then the Pischai Teshuvos writes that there are various Shitos that hold he may still daven Mincha, especially if it is not yet Mamash Shabbos (i.e. he was Mekabel only Tosefes Shabbos). However, even if the sun is already setting and Shabbos is automatically Chal, there are still those who say one can daven Mincha (see the Pischai Teshuvos for an in depth explanation). But the best is to daven Mincha before being Mekabel Shabbos.

123. A women should daven Mincha before lighting the candles, since she is Mekabel Shabbos with the lighting. If she doesn’t have time for Mincha before lighting, the Mishneh Brurah writes that she should say the Maariv Shmoneh Esrai twice. However, there are women who daven Mincha after lighting, and although this is bideved, there is a Shita that holds this is Ok (see the Pischai Teshuvos).

124. It is best to light the Shabbos candles with olive oil, since it burns nicely. The second best choice are any other types of oil that burn well. If not that, then one may light with wax candles. However, the Mishneh Brurah writes that the wax candles of today, since they burn very stably, may be even better than oil.

125. Oil with a bad smell is not fit to be used for lighting the Shabbos candles, since one may come to leave the room because of the smell. Oil that doesn’t hold the fire well is also unfit, since we are afraid that one may come to tilt the vessel in order to catch on the fire better, and this is prohibited on Shabbos. Oil that causes the fire to burn strongly with sparks, is also unfit, because we are afraid it may cause a fire.

126. When lighting the Shabbos candles, one should hold their hand next to the wick until the fire catches on to most of the wick, in other words, for long enough that if they would remove their hand the flame would already be it’s full size. To ensure this, the Minhag is to light the candles and them put them out once, before the actual Shabbos lighting. (There are also reasons according to Kabbala for this Minhag).

127. Someone who was walking to a town on Erev Shabbos, in a place with no Eruv, and it became dark before he arrived in town, Chazal were lenient with him as far as his money and possessions are concerned, because: 'a man does not hold himself back with concern to his money'; so they were afraid he would not be able to withstand the temptation. Therefore, Chazal permitted him to give his wallet to a Goy to carry for him, even though normally one may not tell a goy to do Melacha for them. And if there is no goy, he may give it to a Cheresh, Shotah or Katan, since they are not obligated in Mitzvos. (To be continued in Halacha 128).

128. If there is no Goy, and also no Cheresh, Shotah or Katan around, then Chazal allow one to carry it himself, as long as he walks in breaks of less than 4 Amos at a time (otherwise he is carrying on Shabbos Mideoraysah!). These Heterim do not apply to possessions he may find along the way afterwards, rather only to possessions that he owned before it got dark outside. These Heterim also don’t apply to someone who left late in the day and knew he could become stuck.

129. In order for one to be allowed to daven Maariv while it is still day (after Plag Hamincha), he must daven Mincha before Plag Hamincha (an hour and a quarter before Shkiyah of shaot zemaniot). But if one davens Mincha after Plag Hamincha, he may not daven Maariv until nightfall. The same applies with Shabbos. In order to be Mekabel Shabbos early, one must daven mincha on Erev Shabbos before Plag Hamincha. Only then may he daven Maariv after Plag Hamincha, while it is still day.

130. If one is Mekabel Shabbos early (see the previous Halacha) he may make Kiddush and eat even if it is still day time. This is because the Mitzva of Kiddush has to do with the fact that Shabbos has arrived, whether it arrived on Friday or Saturday.

131. If one is Mekable Shabbos early, even though they may begin eating by day, they should still try lichatchila to eat at least a Kizais after night fall. (Because we learn the Shabbos meals out of the Pesuk Ichluhu Hayom, which means it should be ON the day of Shabbos). One should also make sure to repeat the Kriyas Shema of Maariv again after night fall. Also sefiras Haomer, if applicable, must be said after night fall.

132. If someone makes a mistake and ends the Bracha in Maariv with the words “shomer amo yisrael loh-ad” instead of the Shabbos ending, he does not have to repeat it. However, If he remembers in the same breath (toch kidai dibur) he may quickly say - 'Haporais' etc... instead.

133. In Shmoneh Esrai on Shabbos, if one begins the bracha of Ata Chonen Leadam Daas by mistake, and he said already the first two words, he should finish the Bracha, and then continue with the Shabbos davening. However, if he said only the word “Ata”, then even if he meant to say “Ata Chonen”, he may continue with the Shabbos davening. This is because the Shabbos Shmoneh Esrai also contains that word. This is also assuming that he didn’t forget that it was Shabbos, rather, he only forgot to say the Shabbos davening. (If he forgot it was Shabbos altogether, there's a Machlokes if he should end the Bracha, or correct himself).

134. If one makes a mistake in Musaf and begins the Bracha of Ata Chonen Leadam Daas by mistake, he must stop the bracha in middle. This is because there is no such thing as Musaf with this bracha during the week (as opposed to the other Teffilos of Shabbos, Shacharis, Mincha and Maariv, in which there is the bracha of Ata Chonen during the week - therefore he may complete the Bracha, - see the previous Halacha).

135. On Shabbos, if someone says the entire Shmoneh Esray of the weekday by mistake, he must repeat Shmoneh Esray. However, as long as he didn’t take three steps backwards yet, he can just return to the Shabbos part of Shmoneh Esray. If he mentioned Shabbos even one time, in one of the Brachos, he need not repeat Shmoneh Esray.

136. If someone confuses one Shmoneh Esray with another by Shacharis, Mincha, or Maariv on Shabbos, he needn’t repeat Shmoneh Esray. However, if he still didn’t say the Bracha of Mekadesh hashabbos, he should go back to the Shabbos section of the Shmoneh Esray (after Hakel Hakadosh)...

137. If one confuses Musaf with another Shmoneh Esrai on Shabbos, he must repeat Shmoneh Esrai. However, if he confuses Musaf with Shacharis, he may say afterwards the Shmoneh Esrai of Shacharis, and thereby be Yotzeh both.

138. One should not run on Shabbos, or even take large steps. However, teenagers who enjoy running, may do so. Also, if one wants to see something that he would derive pleasure from seeing, he may run.

139. One should not walk through water on Shabbos, lest he come to Schitah (squeezing out the water). However, for the purpose of a Mitzva he may, (such as to greet his Rebbe or father, or to ask a Shailah). Still, he should do it with a Shinui, such as placing his hands under his coat, so that he should remember not to come to do Schitah. One who goes for a Mitzva, may return through the water as well, on the way back.

140. Even though one should not take large steps when walking on Shabbos, one may take large steps in order to pass over obstacles, such as mud or puddles, and he needn’t walk around them if doing so would take longer.

141. In a place without an Eruv, Chazal prohibited going outside with three types of clothing: 1) Clothes that can easily fall off, such as house slippers. 2) clothes that one is embarrassed from (like only one shoe on), since one may come to remove it. 3) A woman should not go outside with jewelry unless it is sewn to her clothes, because she may come to remove it to show it to her friends.

142. To go outside on Shabbos with only one shoe on, is prohibited in a place without an eruv, since it is embarrassing and he may come to remove the shoes (see the previous Halacha). However, it is permitted in a case where someone has a cast on one leg, (and can therefore only wear one shoe), because people will understand, and he will therefore not be embarrassed.

143. One may not shake snow or dew off of a new, black (or dark) garment on Shabbos, since it is like cleaning it. However, if it is an older garment, or if it is colored (or white), one may shake it off since he doesn’t care as much for it to be spotless, and also it doesn’t look like cleaning. It is also permitted to lightly shake off the outer layer of snow that has not yet absorbed into the garment, even on a new dark garment.

144. It is prohibited to shake rain off of any garment that is new, even if it is not darkly colored (as opposed to snow and dew, see the previous Halacha). If it is an old garment, then even it is dark he may shake off the rain, but he should make sure to do it in a way that won’t squeeze the garment.

145. One may not remove strings that are sticking out of their clothes on Shabbos, because this is like fixing or finishing a garment. One may remove feathers that got stuck to their clothes on Shabbos.

146. There is a Machlokes if one is allowed to remove dust from clothes with dark colors on Shabbos. The Mishneh Brura writes that if it is a new garment and he is Makpid that it stay clean, then one should be Machmir and not remove the dust. However, one may ask a non-Jew to remove it for him, since it is an inyan of Kavod Habriyos.

147. In the previous Halacha we learned that one should be Machmir not to remove dust from a new, darkly colored garment. However, if it is not new and he is not so Makpid on it, then he may remove the dust. Even so, it is better to do it with a Shinui - kilachar Yad. Note: NOT being Makpid means that he would sometimes wear the clothes without cleaning them, even during the week. In such a case it is permitted to remove the dust.  Also. being Makpid on the honor of Shabbos is not called being Makpid, and it would still be permitted.

148. One may not fold clothes on Shabbos into their original folds, because it is like fixing them. However, it is permitted with five very specific conditions. 1) Only brand new clothes that were never washed yet. 2) Only white clothes. 3) Only if one is folding it for use that very day. 4) Only if one folds alone, without the help of another person (and without even the help of a bench). 5) Only if he has no other similar clothes. But if he does, let him leave this unfolded and wear the other one. If one of these conditions are missing, one may not fold clothes on Shabbos into their original folds.

149. One may fold clothes on Shabbos without folding them into their original folds, because this is not like fixing the clothes (since it isn’t permanent). If it is for use on that Shabbos, there is no problem. If not, then in order that it should not be preparation from Shabbos to Chol, one should undo the folds on Motzai Shabbos, and then redo it properly. Note: There are those who are stringent not to fold clothes on Shabbos, even when it isn’t the original folds.

150. One may fold clothes on Shabbos that have strongly defined folds, such as the cuffs of pants, since this isn’t fixing the clothes, rather simply returning them to their original shape. Also, a hat that gets a bang on Shabbos, one may return it to it’s original shape, but the Staipler writes that it should be done with a Shinui.

151. The Halachos of Muktza - Introduction
  -------------------------------------------------------------
 
Chazal wanted to limit the things that one may move around on Shabbos, for three reasons:      
    1)
Because if one deals with objects that are used for doing Melachos, he may come to do Melochos.      
    2)
Because if one can move all sorts of things around on Shabbos, then he may spend his Shabbos doing all sorts of manual labor, instead of  resting.      
    3)
So that one should not come to carry on Shabbos in a place without an Eruv. 
Therefore, Chazal originally made a Gezaira against moving any object that one did not have in mind to use on the Shabbos. This includes:      
    1)
Kli shemelachto le-heter, i.e. any object that he did not have any intention of using on Shabbos.      
    2)
Kli shemelachto le-issur i.e. objects that are used to do Melachos, such as a hammer, since he obviously had no intention of using them on Shabbos.      
    3)
Things that have no purpose, such as sticks and stones, since he had no intention of using them on Shabbos. 
Later, Chazal became more lenient in numbers 1 and 2, as we will see in the following Halachos....

152. After Chazal made the original Gezairos, they became more lenient later on, and allowed the handling of objects that aren’t used to do Melachos (Kli shemelachto leheter), even if one had not had any specific intention at the start of Shabbos to use them on the Shabbos. However, if one wants to move such an object (that he hadn’t thought he would use on Shabbos) for absolutely no reason at all, the original Issur of Muktza remains.

153. Chazal later became more lenient also with objects that ARE used for Melacha - Kli shemelachto le-issur, and they permitted handling them Letzorech Gufo uMekomo. Letzorech Gufo means that it is permitted to handle such an object if one wants to do something permitted with them, such as using a hammer to break open nuts. Letzorech Mekomo means that it is permitted to handle these objects in the instance that one needs the place in which they lie, such as to move away a screwdriver or a drill in order to be able to sit down on the chair.

154. Any object that doesn’t have a Toras kli on it (i.e it doesn't have a particular use), is Muktza on Shabbos, since one obviously did not have in mind at the start of Shabbos to use them on Shabbos. This Muktza is called Muktza Machmas Gufo and includes:     
    - sticks, or wooden beams,     
    - stones, dirt, or sand,     
    - coins, or monetary bills,     
    - live or dead animals, etc....

155. We learned in Halacha #153 that a Kli shemelachto Le-isur is permitted to handle on Shabbos if one needs to move it for it’s place (letzorech mekomo), or if one needs to use it for a permitted action (letzorech gufo). However, there is something in Halacha known as 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis'. This refers to an object that is expensive and is used ONLY for a specific purpose, such as the knife of a surgeon, which he would never use for cutting other things. Such an object is 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis' and it is not permitted to handle it, EVEN if one needs the place (letzorech gufo), or even if one needs it for a permitted action (letzorech mekomo). (The reason why 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis' is more stringent than a regular 'Kli shemelachto Le-isur' is because a regular 'Kli shemelachto Le-isur' one still could have had in mind at the start of Shabbos that they may use it if they need it for a permitted purpose, such as using a hammer to break nuts. However, an expensive object that is used only for a specific purpose, one definitely did not have in mind to use for anything else, and therefore it is a more stringent Muktza).

156. Building bricks are Muktza just like sticks and stones (see Halacha #154), even Letzorech Gufo umekomo. However, bricks that were left over from building, which can be used for all sorts of permitted things, such as to sit on, or as stepping stools, are no longer Muktza, as long as one does not intend on using them for building purposes anymore.

157. It is permitted to touch an object that is Muktza, as long as one does not move it. One may also take a non-Muktza object off of a Muktza object, even if it causes the Muktza object to move, since this is called 'Tiltul Min Hatzad' (moving it from the side), which is permitted.

158. We learned in Halacha #155 about ‘Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis’ that applies to a Kli shemelachto Le-isur, (and makes the Muktza even more stringent). However, there is a Machlokes if ‘Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis’ applies as well to a Kli shemelachto Leheter, such as an expensive or ‘untouchable’ object that one would not use for any other purposes than what it was intended for. Examples could include an expensive painting on the wall, or a decorative crystal that one never uses or touches (other than moving it from one place to another). The Shulchan Aruch Harav holds that 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis' only applies to an object that is used for doing a Melacha (such as a surgeon's scalpel, which he would never use for cutting anything else). However, the Mishna Brurah understands from the Magen Avraham that 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis' applies even to objects that are not used for Melacha, and accordingly it would not be permitted to handle such objects EVEN 'letzorech gufo oh mekomo' (see the Halacha #155).

159. Items that one has for sale during the week are Muktza on Shabbos ('Machmas Chisaron Kis' - see Halacha #155). This is because one would never use such items for any other purposes, because then they would be unfit to sell. Note that the Machlokes that we learned above about ‘Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis' (in Halacha #158) wouldn’t apply here, and in this case everyone would agree that items for sale are 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis', EVEN if the objects on their own would not be Muktza, such as clothes that one has for sale during the week.

160. In the previous Halacha (#159) we learned that items that one keeps for sale during the week, are 'Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kison' on Shabbos. However, food stuff that one holds for sale, is not Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis, because no type of Muktza applies to ready to eat foods. Only foods that are not edible in their present state, such as raw potatoes, are Muktza on Shabbos.

161. There is a type of Muktza called ‘Nolad’, which means that which is ‘born’ on Shabbos. For example, an egg that was laid on Shabbos is Muktza, even though normally a raw egg is not Muktza since there are those who eat eggs raw.

162. Another example of 'Muktza Machmas 'Nolad' (See the previous Halacha , #161) would be a vessel that a goy made on Shabbos. Since at the start of Shabbos the vessel didn’t exist yet in it's present state, it was ‘born’ on Shabbos, and is therefore Muktza because of the din 'Nolad', even if the vessel is a Kli Shemelachto Leheter. A baby that is born on Shabbos is not Muktza Machmas Nolad because no dinay Muktza apply to living humans.

163. We learned in Halacha #155 about Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis, which is a type of Muktza that applies to an object with a specific use, which one would not generally use for any other uses (such as a special sewing scissors, or a workman’s tools of the trade, which he is very careful with). Such an object has a more stringent type of Muktza than a regular Kli shemelachto LeIsur, and it is not permitted to use it even Letzorech Gufo Umekomo. It is important to note however, that if the reason one would generally not use the object for other uses stems simply from it's large size or it's weight, this does not constitute Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis, and one may use it for permitted uses on Shabbos (Letzorech Gufo Umekomo). Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis applies only if one would generally not use the object because of a fear that it may become damaged or break.

164. An object which is used for permitted uses just as much as it is used for non-permitted uses, would not be considered a 'Kli Shemelachto Leisur', and is therefore not Muktza on Shabbos. Examples could include:     
- Kitchen Scissors used for cutting food as well     
- An indoor ladder used to reach things high up, as well as to fix things...

165. Pots are Muktza on Shabbos because they are used for cooking (Kli Shemelachto Leisur). However, a pot with food in it is not Muktza, because it is Batel to the food. Also, once the food is removed from the pot, one may remove the pot from the table since it is a ‘Graf Shel Rai’ (i.e. a non-pleasant object, which we will learn more about later on - see Halacha 189).

166. We learned before in Halacha #153 that it is permitted to handle a Kli Shemelachto Leisur - Letzorech Gufo or Mekomo (see there for translation). It is important to note however, that Letzorech Gufo is permitted ONLY if one does not have a NON-Muktza object that he can use for the same purpose. For example, if one wants to use a hammer to break nuts on Shabbos, he may do so only if he doesn’t have a nut-cracker that he can use instead. And even if he has a hammer handy and the nut-cracker he would need to get up and look for, still it would not be permitted to use the hammer, (unless he could not find the nut-cracker at all).

167. Someone who is holding a Kli Shemelachto Leisur in his hand (either because he used it for a permitted purpose, or by mistake), he may place it wherever he would like. However, if one is holding things that have no use at all on Shabbos, such as sticks and stones... (Muktza Machmas Gufo, see Halacha #154), then he must drop them on the spot, and may not bring them anywhere else.

168. Muktza is only forbidden with the hands. However to move Muktza with the body, or even the arm, is permitted (Mishna Brurah). The Chazon Ish argues however, and holds that Muktza can only be moved with the body in an indirect manner, such as moving Muktza with one’s feet while walking, or pushing Muktza off a bed by laying down on the bed. (The Shulchan Aruch Harav holds like the Chazon Ish, but says that one may do as the Mishne Brurah holds in a time of need).

169. In the previous Halacha we discussed moving Muktza with the body. The Mishna Brurah writes that it is also permitted to push Muktza with a stick, if one needs the space. For example, one may push money off of the table with a knife, if they want to eat on it. (However, the Shulchan Aruch Harav disagrees and holds that using a stick is too direct, as it is simply like having a longer hand, and would therefore not be permitted).

170. Uncooked, frozen foods are ‘Muktza Machmas Gufo’ (just like sticks and stones, see Halacha #154 ), and it is therefore not permitted to move them, even Letzorech Mekomo (for their place). This is important to remember when taking something out of the freezer on Shabbos (example: ice cream), because it is not permitted to handle the frozen meats or fish therein, even if they are in the way.

171. Nut shells, bones and peels that are not fit even for animals to eat, are Muktza. However, according to the Mishna Brurah, one may move them with his arm, or even with a knife - but only IF they need the space. If there are a lot of shells or bones, etc... then since it is unpleasant to have them around, it would be permitted to remove them directly by hand. (If there are animals in the town that would eat such a type of nut-shells or bones, then they are not Muktza in the first place).

172. Tefflin are Muktza like any Kli Shemelachto Leisur. However one may handle Teffilin if they may come to a disgrace, such as if they fell on the floor (or are about to fall), or if one is afraid that they may get stolen. Also, one may remove the Talis from underneath his teffilin if he forgot to remove it from the bag on Friday.

173. Pieces of a broken vessel are Muktza on Shabbos unless they can still be used for some purpose. But once a broken vessel was thrown into the trash, it is Muktza even if it can still be used. (It is important to note though, that if someone throws into the trash a vessel that is still good, it does not become Muktza).

174. We learned in the last Halacha that broken pieces of a vessel are Muktza on Shabbos. However, a part of a vessel that fell off and will be put back together with the vessel after Shabbos, such as a cover or a hatch, is not Muktza, even if it has no use by itself.

175. Live animals are Muktza Machmas Gufo (see Halacha 154). However, one may prod an animal on Shabbos to get it to move, since the animal has a mind of it’s own and moves of it’s own accord. If there is Tzar balai Chaim involved, one may even lift up an animal on Shabbos.

176. Animals that are used for beauty, such as fish or birds, have a less stringent din of Muktza than regular animals. There are those that hold that such animals are not Muktza at all . Others hold that the animals themselves are Muktza, but one may carry the fish with it’s tank, or the bird within it ’s cage. However, there are poskim that hold that such animals are no different than other animals, and are Muktza in any event. Lihalacha, one should be Machmir like this opinion if possible.

177. We learned in the last halacha that one should be Machmir (if possible) that animals that are used for beauty, such as fish or birds, are Muktza on Shabbos. However, everyone agrees that in a case of Tzar balai Chaim, one may handle all types of animals. So if a fish jumps out of the aquarium for example, one may put it back in the water. And if a fish dies on Shabbos, one may even remove it from the tank, to protect the other fish.

178. Objects that are used for a Mitzva that cannot be done on Shabbos, such as a Shofar, Teffilin or a Lulav, are Muktza on Shabbos. A Shofar or Teffilin are considered like a Kli Shemelacho Leissur and may be handled Letzorech Gufo Umekomo (see Halacha 153). However, a Lulav does not have a din of a Kli and is  Muktza Machmas Gufo, like sticks and stones. Therefore it cannot be handled, even  Letzorech gufo Umekomo.

179. A door to a house, room, or large closet that fell off it’s hinges is Muktza on Shabbos (whether it fell off before or on the Shabbos). The same applies to a window that is not attached to a frame. These objects are Muktza because they were not made to be handled in such a way, and also because they are never carried along with the house (as opposed to what we learned in Halacha 174, about a cover to a vessel that fell off).

180. In a public place, it is permitted to remove dangerous objects, such as broken glass, thorns, or small sharp stones, even though generally such objects are Muktza on Shabbos. Chazal also permitted carrying them out of danger, even in a place without an Eruv, as long as one walks less than four Amos at a time.

181. Firewood, or wood that was cut for building purposes is Muktza on Shabbos. However, one may sit down on the wood if it doesn't move. If sitting on the wood causes it to wobble a bit, it is still permitted in a time of need, since it is only indirect movement.

182. We learned in the previous Halacha that wood that was cut for fire or for building purposes is Muktza on Shabbos. However, if one decides before Shabbos that he wants to use the wood to sit on instead, it is no longer Muktza. How does one change the din Muktza on the wood? The best would be to arrange the wood before Shabbos in a way that shows he wants to sit on it. It would also help if he sat down on it once, before Shabbos. And even if he simply has in mind to sit on it for the coming Shabbos, it is enough. (This is because the wood is no longer in it’s natural state and  therefore one can easily decide what he wants to do with it, as opposed to rocks, which we will learn about in the next Halacha IY”H).

183. Stones are Muktza Machmas Gufo (see Halacha 154). To use a stone to hold open a door for example, or to sit on, would be allowed only if he designated the stone for this purpose before Shabbos. Having in mind to sit on the stone just for this one Shabbos, is not enough (as opposed to wood - see the previous Halacha). If one has in mind to use the stone always for sitting on, there is a Shita that this is enough. Everyone agrees however, that one may designate a stone by sitting on it once before Shabbos, or by arranging the stone, or stones, for the purpose of sitting.

184. Bricks that were left over from a building project and were taken into the house to be used for various domestic purposes, are not Muktza on Shabbos since they are no longer designated for building. The same applies to pieces of wood that are used around the house for various purposes, as long as one does not have in mind to ever use them for building purposes, or for kindling wood.

185. Bones or shells that are not fit for animals to eat, are Muktza on Shabbos (see Halacha 171). Still, it is permitted to shake off the table cloth onto the floor, without actually lifting the table cloth up. Then, it would also permitted to sweep it away, since that is only 'Tiltul min Hatzad'.

186. One may remove shells or bones from a table cloth on Shabbos by using a stick or a knife. However, this is only if one needs the place (see Halacha 169). Bread crumbs, peels and shells that are still fit to be eaten by animals, are not Muktza, as long as there are animals in town that would eat it, (such as cats and dogs). If there is still some meat left on a bone, it is not Muktza because the bone is 'Batel' to the meat.

187. If there are only Muktza bones and shells on a table cloth on Shabbos, then  the table cloth becomes Muktza as well. In such a case, we learned before  (Halacha 185) that one may only shake it off without lifting up the table cloth.  However, if there are still bread crumbs on the table, or bones with some meat left  on them, one may carry the entire table cloth somewhere else and then shake it off.

188. Rotten meat is not Muktza on Shabbos because it is still fit for animals to eat. However, raw meat is Muktza, since it cannot be cooked on Shabbos. And even though raw meat is also fit for animals, however, since it is also fit for humans (after cooking), one would not give it to animals to eat, and therefore it is Muktza.

189. There is a special Heter on Shabbos that Chazal made, to remove non-pleasant objects on Shabbos, even though they are Muktza. This Heter is called ‘Graf Shel Ra’i’. This would apply for example to dead insects or rodents, stool, vomit, etc...  and even to something like a large pile of nut shells. This Heter applies even if the object is not within a container (in which case it would anyway be Batel to the container). In other words, even if it is not in a container, one may remove it with their hands.

190. The Heter of ‘Graf Shel Ra’i’ (see the previous Halacha - 189) applies only in a place where someone wants to be present. However, it is not permitted to handle and remove an unpleasant object that one finds in a garbage dump, or in a place where he is simply passing by.

191. The Heter to handle an unpleasant object (‘Graf Shel Ra’i, see Halacha 189), is only where a person designated his place next to the unpleasant object (see previous Halacha). One can designate his place by laying down there, or by sitting down to eat. However, one may not designate his place next to an unpleasant object Lichatchila, if one can just as well go somewhere else. Only, if by going somewhere else one would incur some sort of loss, then one may designate their place next to an unpleasant object, and thereby be allowed to remove it.

192. One may not create a Graf Shel Ra’i (Halacha 189) Lichatchila. For example, one may not cause a large pile of nut shells or garbage to build up inside an empty Muktza pot, just so that he should be allowed to remove the pot. However, if one did create a Graf Shel Ra’i, he may remove it.

193. The Heter to handle an unpleasant object (Graf Shel Ra’i, see Halacha 189), was instigated by Chazal only to allow the removal of an unpleasant object, but not to bring it into the house. For example, if a bucket was used as a toilet, one may remove it from the room on Shabbos because it is a Graf Shel Ra’i. However, once it is out of the room and it was put down, one may not bring it back in again (unless they need to continue using it as a toilet, in which case it is permitted because of Kavod Habriyos).

194. Dirt or sand that one designated for a permitted purpose, is not Muktza on Shabbos. Therefore, sand in a sand-box would not be Muktza. Or if one made a pile of dirt before Shabbos in order to hide something inside it, the dirt would not be Muktza.

195. One may not cause a vessel to become Muktza on Shabbos. For example, one may not place a bowl next to a dripping candle in order to catch the wax, because this would cause the vessel to become Muktza. Similarly, one may not use a vessel to catch an egg as it comes out of a chicken, since such an egg is Muktza on Shabbos (Nolad, see Halacha 161)

196. In a place without an Eruv, one may walk with a child while holding the child's arms, even if the child cannot yet walk alone. This is only as long as the child does not lift both feet off the ground at once, at any time. With regard to animals though, we are more stringent. One may not hold an animal by it’s side and walk with it, lest the animal lift itself up and cause him to carry. However, one may prod an animal to move, since the animal will move on it’s own free will.

197. On Shabbos, one may not roll a ball on the ground outside, even in a place with an Eruv. This is because Chazal were afraid that one may come to fill in holes and straighten out the ground in order to create a level playing field. This applies even if the ground is covered with cement since Chazal did not differentiate outdoors. However indoors, since today all houses have floors, one may roll a ball on the floor.

198. A watch that broke on Shabbos is Muktza, unless one would wear it anyway as Jewelry. If the watch stops working because the batteries ran out or because it needs winding, one may be more lenient, since the watch is not really broken. There are even those that hold that as long as the watch can be fixed, it does not become Muktza (since the Shem Kli remains). In such a case, one may also be more lenient to bring the watch at least to a safer place, if one is afraid that the watch could become lost or stolen.

199. A large clock that hangs on the wall is Muktza on Shabbos. A grandfather clock that stands on the ground is Muktza, but may be moved if one needs the space where it stands. One should not use an hour glass on Shabbos since it works by measuring quantities.

200. It is prohibited to make measurements on Shabbos. Therefore, a measuring tape is a kli-shemelachto le-issur, and is Muktza. However, for the purpose of a Mitzva, one may make measurements (Medidot shel Mitzva), and one would be allowed to use a measuring tape to do this (since it is Machmas Gufo umekomo - see Halacha 153). However, if it is an expensive measuring tape that one uses only for their work, it is Muktza Machmas Chisaron Kis (see Halacha 155), and is prohibited even for Medidot shel Mitzva.